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History of Photography A Brief Overview…..

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History of Photography A Brief Overview…..
History of Photography
A Brief Overview…..
Seven Elements of Photography
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1. Dark Box
2. Light
3. Light Sensitive Material - Film
4. Shutter
5. Photographer
6. Subject
7. Hole
How a pin hole camera
works….
The Beginnings
• 5th Century BC In China Mo
Ti recorded his observation of
light rays and their ability to
project a “duplicate” image
• He noticed that when light
reflected off an object and
passed through a pinhole onto
a dark surface, an inverted
image of the object was
evident on the darker surface
CAMERA OBSCURA
A room….
• Centuries later light writing is
further defined with camera
obscura (dark room)
• Used for:
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View & record exterior scenes
Studies of heavens
Passage of the seasons
Architectural studies
Problems….
• Could not move room
• Not portable
• Always same image
A tent…….
• 15 years later - 1560’s An
Italian – Danielo Barbaro
replaced the pinhole with
lenses resulting in a further
sharpening & brightening of
the image
• increased the camera
obscura’s portability
Problems…
• Not as dark – light got through
• Unstable….wind shook
• Photographers had to carry around a lot of
equipment.
A box……….
Problem…
• Image still not permanent
Photography? Not Yet.
Up to this time LIGHT was not
creating a permanent record
Sun prints
English chemist…
• Thomas Wedgewood, son of
British potter was the first man
able to use light to describe an
object
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Decorating plates and pottery in
his father’s company
The images were weak but he
invented the photogram
A method of reproducing an
image from contact copy, without
a camera
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SUNPRINTS were not permanent,
silver salts were not permanent
Problem…..
• Image still not permanent
• Faded
• Fuzzy
Take out….
• Sunprint objects
• Newsprint pad
• Coat
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Supplies
Sun print paper
Trays – 10
Plexi glass and boards
Sample sun prints
Method…
• Place objects on paper
• Develop outside 7 to 10 min depending on
sun
• Place in newsprint pad
• Bring inside
• Develop in water
• Place under plexi glass
Joseph Nicephore Niepce
• First Photograph
FLAWS
• Low sensitivity of the Bituman of Judea
emulsion, some take as long as three days.
• Hazy due to the time of length exposed.
• Uneven, blotchy, appearance.
Hand Held Cameras
• 1888 George Eastman founded a
Rochester NY company and specialized in
manufacturing gelatin dry plates. The
Eastman Dry Plate Company – Eastman
Company
Kodak
• Pre-loaded camera:
Kodak #1
• 3¼ x3¼x6½
inches
• Used with “American
Film” – actually paper
Kodak Brownie
Photogram
PHOTOGRAM
• Photographic image made (without a camera) by
placing objects directly onto the surface of a photosensitive material such as photographic paper and
then exposing it to light.
• The result is a silhouetted image varying in
darkness based on the transparency of the objects
used, with areas of the paper that have not
received any light appearing light and those that
have appearing dark, according to the laws of
photosensitivity. The image obtained is often quite
similar to an X-Ray. This method of imaging is
perhaps most prominently attributed to Man Ray
(RAYOGRAPHS)
Developing….
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1. Developer – 1-2 minutes – 1:9 water
2. Stop – 5-10 seconds – 1:9 water
3. Fixative – 1 minute 1:9 water
4. Wash - 5 minutes - water
5. wash aid – 10 minutes – 1:99 water
6. wash - 5 minutes - water
Squeegee and blow dry
(68 degrees)
Red lights
Pinhole Photography
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Pinhole photography is lensless photography. A tiny hole replaces the lens. Light
passes through the hole; an image is formed in the camera.
Pinhole images are softer – less sharp – than pictures made with a lens.
The images have nearly infinite depth of field.
Wide angle images remain absolutely rectilinear.
The first published Picture of a pinhole camera obscura is apparently a drawing in
Gemma Frisius' De Radio Astronomica et Geometrica (1545).
Sir David Brewster, a Scottish scientist, was one of the first to make pinhole
photographs, in the 1850s. He also coined the very word "pinhole", or "pin-hole" with
a hyphen, which he used in his book The Stereoscope, published in 1856. reproduced
in Renner.
Pinhole photography became popular in the 1890s.
In the 1940s pinhole cameras found their way into nuclear physics. It was discovered
that pinhole cameras could be used to photograph high-energy X-rays and gamma
rays.
In the 1970s pinhole photography gained increasing popularity. Multiple pinholes
became rare.
Digital Photography
Camera Basics………
How to hold a digital
camera…..
Practice holding yours now……
Step 1….Sorry lefties!
1. Use your right hand to grip the right hand end
of the camera. Your forefinger should sit lightly
above the shutter release, your other three
fingers curling around the front of the camera.
Your right thumb grips onto the back of the
camera. Most cameras these days have some
sort of grip and even impressions for where
fingers should go so this should feel natural. Use
a strong grip with your right hand but don’t grip it
so tightly that you end up shaking the camera.
- Squeeze the shutter don’t jab at it!!!!!!!!!!!!
Step 2 & 3
2. The positioning of your left hand will depend upon
your camera but in in general it should support the
weight of the camera and will either sit underneath the
camera or under/around a lens if you have a SLR.
3. If you’re shooting using the view finder to line up
your shot you’ll have the camera nice and close into
your body which will add extra stability but if you’re
using the LCD make sure you don’t hold your camera
too far away from you. Tuck your elbows into your
sides and lean the camera out a little from your face
(around 30cm). Alternatively use the viewfinder if it’s
not too small or difficult to see through (a problem on
many point and shoots these days).
Human Tripod
Step 4
4. Add extra stability by leaning against a
solid object like a wall or a tree or by sitting
or kneeling down. If you have to stand and
don’t have anything to lean on for extra
support put your feet shoulder width apart to
give yourself a steady stance. The stiller you
can keep your body the stiller the camera will
be.
• Gripping a camera in this way will allow you
flexibility
Make sure the camera strap is
around your neck or wrist
ISO
Setting the ISO –
• ISO – a numeric
rating of the image
sensors sensitivity to
light.
• Can be automatic or
manual
ISO
• 100/200 = sunny outdoors
• 400/800 = Overcast skies/evening
• 1600 = Night or dark indoors
• 800/1600 = less of a camera shake
• Higher ISO = more grainy the image
• 100 = fine
• 1600 = grainy = more noise
Grain
100 speed
400 speed
Image Noise
• Digital artifacts
• Random, grain like, textured colored
specks.
• Large Image sensors produce less noise
that small sensors.
• Most noise occurs when shooting with low
light and a high ISO setting.
White Balance
White Balance
• You might have noticed when examining shots after taking them that
at times images can come out with an orange, blue, yellow etc look
to them – despite the fact that to the naked eye the scene looked
quite normal. The reason for this is that images different sources of
light have a different ‘color’ (or temperature) to them. Fluorescent
lighting adds a bluish cast to photos whereas tungsten
(incandescent/bulbs) lights add a yellowish tinge to photos.
• The range in different temperatures ranges from the very cool light
of blue sky through to the very warm light of a candle.
• We don’t generally notice this difference in temperature because our
eyes adjust automatically for it. So unless the temperature of the
light is very extreme a white sheet of paper will generally look white
to us. However a digital camera doesn’t have the smarts to make
these adjustments automatically and sometimes will need us to tell it
how to treat different light.
Read more: http://digital-photography-school.com/introduction-to-white-balance#ixzz2NFAUJzcc
White Balance – Color Temperature
• Light has a strong effect on the color of
your picture.
• Some light is –
• Neutral
• Warm – yellow/orange
• Cool – blue
• White balance allows you to match the
image sensor to the light situation
• Or miss match it for creative result.
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