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Chapter 34 Electromagnetic Waves

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Chapter 34 Electromagnetic Waves
Chapter 34
Electromagnetic Waves
Waves
• If we wish to talk about electromagnetism or light
we must first understand wave motion.
• If you drop a rock into the water small ripples are
seen on the surface of the water. When the water
is displaced from its original position the motion
travels outward in the form of a wave.
• Generally, waves transfer energy without
transferring matter.
Definition
• Longitudinal wave: a
wave whose
displacement is in the
direction of motion of
the wave. An example
would be the wave
created when a spring
is compressed and
then released.
Definition
• Transverse wave: A
wave whose
displacement is
perpendicular to the
direction of motion of
the wave.
Definition cont.
• For example, when a
taunt rope is snapped
the displacement of
the rope is
perpendicular to the
length, while the wave
travels along the
length of the rope.
Definition
• Medium: The material with which a wave
propagates in is called the medium.
• For instance, if you drop a pebble in the
water the water acts as the medium for the
propagation of the waves.
• When someone speaks the air acts as the
medium for the sound waves.
Definitions
• Wavelength: The distance
between any two points on
a wave from which the
wave begins to repeat
itself.
• Frequency: The time
required for a wave to
complete one cycle.
Frequency is usually
measured in hertz.
Definitions
• Amplitude: The amplitude is the height
from the midpoint of the vibration to the
highest point of the wave.
• Wave speed: The speed with which a wave
propagates through a medium.
Review of Waves:
What is a wave?
It is a disturbance.
λ
A
λ = wavelength (distance from peak to peak)
A = amplitude (distance from center)
f = frequency (number of vibrations per second)
Relationship Between Speed,
Wavelength and Frequency
• The frequency, f is
directly proportional
to the speed, v and
inversely proportional
to the wavelength, l.
Example
• As you sit on the shore you notice that the
waves crash into the beach twice every
second.
• You estimate that the length of each wave
is about 1.5 meters.
• How fast are the waves coming into shore?
Solution
• Since two waves are
hitting the beach every
second then the
frequency of the
waves must be:
• f = 2 s-1.
• The wavelength is 1.5
meters; therefore,
Maxwell’s Equations Special
Case
• Now consider
Maxwell’s equations
for the special case
where there are no
currents and we are in
a vacuum.
Vector Operator Identity
• Consider the following identity.
Electromagnetic Waves
• The wave equation for electromagnetic waves has
the following form.
An Electromagnetic Wave
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
• When an electromagnetic wave is created
its energy depends upon the frequency of
the wave.
• Higher frequencies, hence shorter
wavelengths, correspond to greater
energies.
• Visible light is only as small portion of this
spectrum.
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
cont.
• Radio waves: also called
electronic waves have the
longest wavelengths and
the least energy.
• The wavelength of radio
waves is a millimeter or
more in length with no
upper limit on the
wavelength.
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
cont.
• Infrared radiation: The
part of the spectrum
ranging in size from
about 1 mm to
approximately 0.001
mm.
• All objects produce
thermal energy due to
the vibrations of their
atoms and molecules.
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
cont.
• Visible radiation: This
is the form of radiation
to which our eyes are
sensitive.
• The wavelengths
range from
7.9 107 m
to
3.7 107 m
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
cont.
• Ultraviolet radiation: Just
beyond the visible
spectrum lies the
ultraviolet.
• Ultraviolet radiation
causes sunburns, skin
cancer, and mutations in
sperm or egg cells.
• UV has a wavelength less
than, and a frequency
greater than:
l  3.7 10 m
7
f  810 Hz
14
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
cont.
• X-ray radiation: It wavelength is much smaller than that of
ultraviolet and much more energetic.
• This makes it a useful tool in viewing inside the human
body.
• X-rays are created by highly accelerated electrons.
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
cont.
• Gamma radiation: gamma radiation is of the
highest energy, shortest wavelength and
highest frequency.
• Gamma rays are created within the nucleus
of the atom during high-energy nuclear
process or during nuclear decay.
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
The Energy of Electromagnetic
Waves
• Like all waves electromagnetic waves carry
energy.
• The energy density of an EM wave can be
expressed as follows:
The Energy of Electromagnetic
Waves cont.
• Since the electric and magnetic part of an EM
wave contribute equally to the energy density we
can write the following:
The Energy of Electromagnetic
Waves cont.
• Since the electric and magnetic part of an EM
wave are equal we can derive the following:
The Energy of Electromagnetic
Waves cont.
• Therefore, the electric and magnetic field are
related by the following:
RMS of an E-M Wave
• Just as with the ac
voltage and current we
can define the root
mean square average
of the electric and
magnetic fields.
RMS of an E-M Wave cont.
• Here E0 and B0 represent the maximum electric
and magnetic fields respectively.
• The average energy density can now be defined
as:
Example
• Sunlight enters the top of the earth’s
atmosphere with an electric field whose rms
value is 720 N/C.
• Find the average total energy density of this
electromagnetic wave and the rms value of
the sunlight’s magnetic field.
Solution
• The average energy density can be obtained by the
following:
Solution cont.
• The magnetic and electric field are related by the
speed of light. Therefore, the root mean squared
magnetic field is:
Energy of an EM Wave
• If we multiply the total energy density of an EM
wave by the volume that it occupies then we have
its energy.
Energy of an EM Wave cont.
• The volume of space occupied by the wave is
equal to some cross-sectional area, A, through
which it passes multiplied by the distance traveled.
Energy of an EM Wave cont.
• The energy of an EM wave then becomes:
Example
• Dr. Evil has mounted high-powered pulsedlasers to the backs of a number of sea-bass
that he keeps in a large tank of water.
• Austin Powers, after being turned over to
Dr. Evil by Alota Fagina, finds himself face
to face with these creatures.
Example cont.
• The lasers have a beam radius of 2.0 mm,
and can be pulsed at a rate of 100 ms and the
pulse last 100 ms.
• Therefore, the laser is on as much as it is
off.
• The average electric field generated by the
laser is 10,000 N/C.
Example cont.
• How much energy
does Austin’s
shaggadelic body
absorb in one minute
from the lasers?
Solution
• We know that the
energy density is
related to the energy in
the following way.
• The average energy
density can be written
in terms of the electric
field.
Solution cont.
• The cross-sectional
area can be calculated.
• The laser is on just as
much as it is off.
Therefore, the total
amount of time that
the laser is on is:
Solution cont.
• The total energy can now be written in terms of
what is given.
Intensity of an EM Wave
• The intensity of any wave is defined as the amount
of power incident on a unit area.
• Thus the intensity, S, of an EM wave can be
defined as follows:
Intensity of an EM Wave cont.
• Thus the intensity of an EM wave is equal
to the energy density multiplied by the
speed of light.
Intensity of an EM Wave cont.
• We can derive relationships for the intensity of an
EM wave in terms of the electric and magnetic
fields.
Intensity of an EM Wave cont.
• Substituting in for B or E we get the following
relationship for the intensity.
Intensity of an EM Wave cont.
• If the rms values of E and B are used in the
equation above then the average intensity can be
defined.
Example
• On a cloudless day, the sunlight that reaches
the surface of the earth has an average
intensity of about 1000 W/m2.
• What is the average electromagnetic energy
contained in 5.5 cubic meters of space just
above the earth’s surface?
Solution
• The average electromagnetic energy contained
within this volume is the product of the average
energy density and the volume.
Polarization
• Because EM waves are transverse waves,
that is waves that have there displacement
perpendicular to the direction of travel, they
can be polarized.
• The direction of polarization refers to the
direction of the oscillation of the electric
field component of the EM wave.
Polarization
• Since most sources of light (an EM wave) produce
multiple EM waves with their polarization
direction randomly oriented in space such light is
considered unpolarized.
• By passing light through polarizing material the
transmitted light will be linearly polarized. That is
all of the light its electric field component
oscillating in the same direction.
Malus’ Law
• If unpolarized light is allowed to pass
through a polarizer only half of the light
will be transmitted; the half that has its
polarization in the direction of the polarizer.
• If light that has already been polarized is
allowed to pass through a second polarizer,
called an analyzer, the amount of light that
is transmitted can be controlled.
Malus’ Law cont.
• If the electric field strength of the polarized
light incident on the analyzer is E, the field
strength passing through the analyzer is the
component parallel to the transmission axis,
or E cos q.
Malus’ Law cont.
• The average intensity of the light leaving the
analyzer can be expressed in terms of the average
intensity incident on the analyzer: The equation
below is known as Malus’ law.
Example
• Unpolarized light whose intensity is 1.10
W/m2 is incident on a polarizer.
• Once the light leaves the polarizer it
encounters an analyzer that is set at an angle
of 75 degrees with respect to the polarizer.
• What is the intensity of the light that leaves
the analyzer?
Solution
• The polarizer reduces the intensity of the light by
a factor two. Therefore the light incident on the
analyzer is:
Solution cont.
• The light that leaves the analyzer can now be
obtained with the use of Malus’ law:
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