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How to Succeed in Grad School Iris Lindberg 03/17/05

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How to Succeed in Grad School Iris Lindberg 03/17/05
How to Succeed in
Grad School
Iris Lindberg 03/17/05
What’s Success?
Operational: the ability to
graduate and move on to the
next phase of your life (with
choices!) with all of the skills
you need -within a reasonable
time frame (4-6 years)
What’s Basic Success?
• One good publication
• 3.0 GPA in graduate school
• Mastery of bench science
– Mastering specific techniques in your field and peripheral
but related fields
– Experimental design- some independence and analytical skills
• Ability to communicate: write proposals and papers,
give talks
• Acquisition of people resources (network) and
information resources
• Good recommendations
What’s “Excellent” Success?
• Three good publications (on important topics,
in widely-read journals)
• Complete mastery of bench science
– Independence at the bench; Ability to design new
projects
• Complete mastery of a field
• Excellent ability to communicate: to write
proposals and papers, give talks
• Honors- grants, awards etc
• Stellar recommendations (top 5%)
How to Succeed?
• You must connect your stated goals with your
actual effort!
– Biotech companies want the same excellent
credentials as academia
– Your competition will have those credentials
• There is no substitute for hard work
– Most successful scientists say they put in 50-60h
weeks as students
• If it FEELS like work, this may be the wrong
job for you!
Personal Qualities Required
for Success
•Passion for science, enjoyment of
intellectual challenge, viewing bench
science as “fun”: CURIOSITY
•Tenacity, persistence= DRIVE
•Ability to visualize and work for a longterm goal (drive to finish): VISION
•Positive outlook
•Vast intelligence and brilliant coursework
are less important than the above qualities
This Presentation
• Efficiency at the bench
• Obtaining, organizing, and presenting
information
• Maximizing your grad school experience
The Bench
How to Succeed?
• Much of science is luck
• You can get lucky if you try A LOT of
different experiments
• As you mature you will be able to run
several projects concurrently (and test
many effects in a single experiment)
• Increase your odds of being lucky!
Maximizing Efficiency
at the Bench
• Start with a daily list
• Prioritize this list: do the most important things
first
• Interleave items so that the most jobs get done
• Plan for the next day’s work before you leave
• Work on at least one weekend day (this will save
you months!)
• Read literature mostly at night
• Put a date on EVERYTHING! It’s a locator device.
• Watch out for inefficient use of computer time
Always Do Feasibility Estimates
• Many experiments (especially assays)
benefit from a preliminary calculation
prior to starting
• These estimates need not be exactballpark it!
– A band on a gel like the standard is 2 ug.
What is your yield of protein?
• Saves time!
Experimental Design:
Thinking vs Doing
• Think about the figure in the eventual
paper
• Run all appropriate controls and
standards together with samples
– The sample is always in the middle of the
standard curve!
• Think about possible sources of error
ahead of time
Experimental Analysis
• Be your own worst critic: do the right number
of replicates you need (or more)
– If error bars overlap, are results really
significant? What does a power analysis show?
• Is this a generally accepted method in the
field?
• Is there any way you could have obtained your
results through an artifact?
• Do not EVER give results to more than 3
figures since no one can pipet this well!
Establish Conventions
• Put standards on same side of gel
• Put control before experimental
• Use the same color for control and a
different color for experimental when
labeling tubes
• Try to make data analysis as easy as
possible (for example, by using the same
percentage of medium and lysate)
Experimental Analysis, II
• Do not keep repeating an experiment
again and again in the hopes of getting a
different answer.
• You must change something!
• Do not be afraid to change your entire
approaches/project if you have really
tried your best and you have not been
able to get an unambiguous answer
You Need to Know How it Works
• Make sure you understand the
theoretical basis for all:
– Kits you are using
– Equipment you are using
– Techniques you are using
• You can’t troubleshoot if you don’t know
what is really happening
How to Develop
Analytical Skills
• Critique your experiments:
– locate possible sources of artifact and
error
– compare your results to published data in
terms of units
• Read, read, read the literature in your
area!
• Thinking vs Doing: remember to
balance!
When You Have Problems
• First analyze the experiment yourself, then
take this analysis and get help
• You must show you have mastered the
technique before you can claim that the line
of work is unprofitable
• Investigate the use of alternative techniques
– Depending on the importance of the problem, you
may want to use several approaches simultaneously
How to Organize a Project
• Plan a paper!
• Make a flow diagram of what you would
like to put into this paper (things will
change)
• Set up a time line for accomplishing the
various parts of the project (specifics)
• Line up all reagents and people you need
well in advance
What to do if you have fallen out
of love with your project
• Think about why the experiments no longer
interest you
–
–
–
–
Personal reasons?
Constant ambiguity in results? Hypothesis wrong?
Too small a question?
No existing context for the question?
• Decide with your mentor if it is time to
switch projects; if not:
– Read more papers in the general area
– Go to a meeting and present your results to the
group of people who work in this particular area
Ideas
• “The best way to have a really good idea is to
have lots of ideas”- Linus Pauling
• Ask if you can branch out to explore
potentially interesting side areas which always
pop up
– Do not be afraid to pursue the most important
problems
– Do not continue indefinitely if unproductive, timeconsuming and/or costly (risk-benefit analyses!)
• Focus on questions, not on techniques!
• You will get better at generating ideas over
time!
Obtaining, Organizing, and
Presenting Information
Obtaining and Organizing
Information
• First use your laboratory’s standard protocols!
• Technique manuals = “The Red Book” (Current
Protocols in ….)
• Online manuals and lab websites
– Google as technical aid
• PubMed – look for papers
• Company technical information and equipment
manuals
• People: seminars, emails, websites and phone
calls
Obtaining and Organizing
Information
• Do not let your experimental data pile up without
filing. YOU WILL FORGET!
• Summarize your conclusions on the first page of
your experiment when filing; paperclip expts
• Keep a separate protocol notebook
• File your references by subject and/or author
– Consider the use of color
• Organize your computer files- papers,
techniques, letters, coursework. Back up!!
Obtaining and Organizing
Information
• Databases- immediately learn how to
access CRISP, PubMed, any others
pertinent to your research
• Programs- learn very early how to use a
scientific graphing program and any
other specialized programs your lab
uses
People Resources
• Your mentor
• Other faculty members are always
willing to help
• Colleagues - students, postdocs,
technicians
• Seminar speakers
• High school and college friends!
• (eventually- anyone you have ever met!)
How to Write a Paper
• When to start: when ALMOST all of the data
are in
• “Barf ‘n’ buff” method- get ANYTHING down
on paper, polish later
• Use “sharp” time for writing Discussion,
“foggy” time for Methods /References
• Be prepared to go through five or six
revisions
• Do not give your mentor anything that is not
spell-checked and proofed for errors
Parts of a Paper
• Abstract: summarizes major findings
concisely
• Introduction: puts work in historical
context
• Methods: enables reader to repeat
• Results- is ordered logically and
supports conclusions
• Discussion- how do results match
current thinking and how do they move
the field forward?
Procedure for Publishing Papers
• Submit paper
• Within 6-8 weeks receive review
• Revise paper (may need new experiments) and
resubmit (or send to another journal) and
write a REBUTTAL letter detailing your
changes
• Wait another 6 weeks
• Receive acceptance (or revise yet again!)
• Receive galleys 2-6 months later
• Paper appears between 4-12 months after
initial submission
Galleys
• Galleys are returned so that you can
make sure everything is absolutely
perfect- within 48 h
• Compare every line with the original, but
especially every figure legend and table;
title and authors, abstract
Reviewing Papers
• Use the critical judgment you would
apply to your own work
• Are the methods clear enough to repeat
the work?
• Do the results in each figure support
the conclusion made in the text?
• Is the literature correctly cited?
• Is the work a step forward?
My First Paper
(what is wrong with this galley?)
Talks
Attention
• Add graphic material as often as
possible- techniques, diagrams, photos,
movies
• Be conversational with the audience
• Answer questions briefly and honestly
• Practice in front of others
• End early: attention span is plotted like
this:
Duration of talk
Cartoon here
Giving a Good Talk
• Get as many opportunities to speak as
possible!
• Make sure your level is appropriate to
audience
– For audiences far from the field, restrict number
of pure data slides, increase amount of
introduction
• Organize your talk into “story modules” and
plan transitions
• Less is more: do not cram too many modules in
• Never, EVER go over 50 min
Presenting a Research Paper
in Journal Club
• Picking the paper
– A good paper- one you think will appeal to the
majority of the audience; simple
– Something you have some expertise with
– Current- in last few months
– Interesting results and/or techniques- solid
– Papers that suggest a mechanism work well for
diverse groups
– Photocopies well
Maximizing Your Grad
School Experience
Choosing A Thesis Advisor
• Interesting work (to you)
• History of productivity
– Search Pubmed
• Funded
– Search Crisp (NIH only; many other sources exist)
• History of graduating students within 5 years
– Check history!
• Personnel from the lab have done well in the
past (ask)
• Good personal interactions- compatible styles
Attending Seminars
• Stay awake, listen, look
• Try to anticipate where speaker is going
• Weigh the data- are the conclusions
really supported?
• Think of questions to ask
• Take notes
Attending a National Meeting
•
•
•
•
Meet as many people as possible
Get as many new techniques as possible
Acquire reagents and collaborators
Look at style of presentations as well as
raw data and conclusions- what
field/technique/question impresses you
most?
• Try to get something out of every talk
you attend and poster you visit
Meeting Your Deadlines
• Personal vs official deadlines
– You should have both!
• Procrastination
– “The best enemy of achievement”
– “The difference between your priorities
and your results” (Barker, “At the Helm”)
• Perfectionism
– Sometimes valuable (quality products), but
not if it keeps you from finishing a task
Our Expectations
• Finish your qualifying exam by the end
of the second year (April is optimal)
• Finish the preliminary exam during the
following summer (June/July)
• Organize these things WAY ahead of
time as faculty schedules fill up!
Qualifying Exam
• Tests your basic knowledge of biochemistry
• Tests your knowledge of your specific area
• Tests your ability to formulate the questions
which will be the first part of your thesis
• Do not be afraid to contact faculty for help
during proposal preparation!
– Committee- literature, technique tips
– Mentor- general suggestions for improvement
• There are examples in the Biochem library
Preliminary Exam (PhD candidacy)
• Tests your ability to formulate
scientific questions independently
• Tests your ability to write a proposal
• Do not be afraid to contact faculty for
help during proposal preparation!
– Committee- literature, techniques
– Mentor- suggestions for improvement
• There are examples in the Biochem
library
Learn To Multi-Task
• It is neither necessary nor desirable to
take 2-3 months off from the lab to
write your prelim or qualifying exams!
• You can devote some time each day to
benchwork and some to literature
analysis
Taking Initiative and Assuming
Personal Responsibility
• You must seek out help when you need
it, and not keep repeating experiments
that don’t work
• Be proactive in other areas too- in
suggesting seminar speakers, in locating
new papers relevant to your research
• You must become an expert in your
field!
Taking Initiative and Assuming
Personal Responsibility
• Your mentor may identify meetings for
you, but you can also identify meetings
in the field -and scholarships!
• Pre- and postdoctoral fellowships all
have deadlines; you have to identify and
meet them!
• Do not leave the lab without finishing
your manuscripts
Working With Others
• Documented ability to work in teams is
critical for industry/biotech jobs
• Must prove that you can direct students
– Don’t turn down summer undergraduates!
• Being a good lab member means helping
out with chores without being asked
• Synergy: you get more done when each
person helps a project with their
particular expertise!
Other Grad School Opportunities
• Voluntary teaching- helps presentation skills
• Collaborations- you can initiate under certain
circumstances (ask your boss)
• Reviewing papers (if asked)
• Learning as much as possible–
–
–
–
Techniques which may be useful in the future
Operating specialized equipment
Mini-courses from companies
Seminars from all departments (2-3 a week
maximum)
Ethics and Morals
• There is no scientific crime greater than data
fabrication
– Even a PI with an upcoming grant deadline does not
want faked data!
• There are many other types of “ethically
challenged” behavior
–
–
–
–
Removing points that don’t fit
Sloppiness in calculations or citation
Overinterpretation of results
Plagiarism
• Everything that is published with your name
on it must be both TRUE and ORIGINAL
What Do PIs Look For
in Postdocs?
• INDEPENDENT thinkers!
– Ability to trouble-shoot, analyze results
critically, and go to the next step
– Ability to set up new techniques from the
literature
• Hard workers with a passion for science
• Appropriate background for the lab
• Willingness to write a grant to support
themselves
Graduate Student Bill of Rights
• You will receive general training in Biochemistrymolecular biology, cell biology, and proteins
• You will receive training in experimental design
– You will meet regularly and often with PI and other trainers
• You will receive training in writing papers and grants
– You will write the first draft of papers
– You will get input on your proposals and see your mentor’s
• You will receive training in giving talks
– Your mentor will listen to you first before you go public
• If your mentor is not training you in these areas, ask
why!
Call On Your Committee!
• To help with experimental design and
supply references for techniques
• To outline a game plan and keep you on
track
• If your advisor won’t let you leave
• A yearly meeting is required!
At the End of the Day…
• You are not an “electrophysiologist”- you
are trained in SCIENCE
• You have valuable design and analysis
skills
• You can organize information efficiently
• You have communication skills, written
and verbal
• You are trained for many jobs!
Do Not Worry About Your
Ability to Do Things in the
Distant Future
when the time comes, you will
have those skills!
The future….
Resources
• At the Bench, by Kathy Barker (Cold Spring Harbor Press)
• At the Helm (same author)
• Survival Skills for Grad Students: talks, posters, grants, papers,
jobs:
http://www.med.uwo.ca/physiology/courses/survivalwebv3/frame.ht
m
• Similar Site Run by IBRO: http://www.ibroedu.org
• MIT’s site:
http://web.mit.edu/career/www/workshops/CV/RelatedLinks.html
• Grant writing: http://cpmcnet.columbia.edu/research/writing.htm
• Tips on Writing Scientific Reports:
http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/ScienceReport.html
• American Society for Cell Biology has lots of information:
– http://www.ascb.org/careers/
Resources- Predoctoral
Fellowships
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
[email protected]
NIH individual grant
NIH training grant
Many, many other sources- disease-related
– AHA and ACS are the largest
NIH research training opportunities
http://grants.nih.gov/training/nrsa.htm
Howard Hughes Medical Institute http://www.hhmi.org
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation http://www.sloan.org
Burroughs Wellcome Fund http://www.bwfund.org
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation http://www.rwjf.org
The End
Fly UP