...

Waves and Sound Physical Science

by user

on
Category: Documents
8

views

Report

Comments

Transcript

Waves and Sound Physical Science
Waves and Sound
Physical Science
The Nature of Waves
•What is a wave?
A wave is a
repeating
disturbance or
movement that
transfers energy
through matter or
space
Waves transfer energy not matter. The water
waves below are carrying energy but are not
moving. Waves can only exist as they have energy
to carry.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ACeUO4ufx2I
What are mechanical waves?
Mechanical waves are waves which require a medium. A medium is a
form of matter through which the wave travels (such as water, air,
glass, etc.) Waves such as light, x-rays, and other forms of radiation
do not require a medium.
What are the two kinds of mechanical waves?
1) Transverse Waves
In a transverse wave the matter in the wave moves up
and down at a right angle to the direction of the wave
What are mechanical waves?
Mechanical waves are waves which require a medium. A medium is a
form of matter through which the wave travels (such as water, air,
glass, etc.) Waves such as light, x-rays, and other forms of radiation
do not require a medium.
What are the two kinds of mechanical waves?
2) Longitudinal Waves (Compression Waves)
In a longitudinal wave the matter in the wave moves
back and forth parallel to the direction of the wave
Example of a transverse wave:
phET Waves on a String
Sound Waves are
compressional waves
• Sound travels as vibrations
moving through the air as a
compressional wave.
• Sound travels through air,
but travels through other
materials as well.
• Whales communicate
through long distances by
producing sounds under
water.
•http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BYiCzWZ8cBs
•http://upuid-www-bbc-co-uk.trum.net/programmes/p00jz21r
What are Seismic Waves?
•
An energy wave which vibrates through the earth’s
crust as the crust bends or breaks.
•
Seismic waves exist as both transverse and
compressional waves.
•
Some travel through the earth and some travel
across the earth’s surface.
Anatomy of a Seismic Wave
What are the parts of a wave?
Transverse wave
•The crest is the highest point
on a transverse wave. The
trough is the lowest point on
a transverse wave.
•The rest position of the
wave is called the node or
nodal line.
•The wavelength is the
distance from one point on
the wave to the next
corresponding adjacent
point.
Compressional
Longitudinal wave
•On a compressional
wave the area
squeezed together is
called the
compression.
•The areas spread out
are called the
rarefaction.
•The wavelength is the
distance from the
center of one
compression to the
center of the next
compression.
What is wavelength?
•Wavelength is a measure of distance, so the
units for wavelength are always distance
units, such as meter, centimeters, millimeters,
etc.
What is wave frequency?
•Frequency is the number of waves that pass
through a point in one second. The unit for
frequency is waves per second or Hertz (Hz).
One Hz = One wave per second.
•Wavelength and frequency are inversely
related.
•The smaller the wavelength, the more times
it will pass through a point in one second. The
larger the wavelength, the fewer times it will
pass through a point in one second.
Wavelength Comparison
Need to know a basic frame of reference- how do radio waves
compare to gamma rays in terms of their wavelength &
frequency, etc.
Frequency is the number of waves
(vibrations) that pass through a point in
one second.
Period is the time it takes for one full
wavelength to pass a certain point.
•Frequency is waves per second (f)
•Period is seconds per wave (T)
1
frequency 
period
1
f
T
What is Wave Speed?
•A wave moving through a medium travels at a certain
speed.
•Wave speed is usually measured in meters/second, but may
be measured using other distance units (such as
centimeters per second).
How is Wave Speed calculated?
•Wave speed is calculated as the product of a waves
frequency and wavelength.
•Wavelength is represented by the Greek letter lambda (λ)
and frequency is represented by (f)
What is the amplitude of a wave?
•The amplitude of a wave is directly related to the energy
of a wave.
The amplitude of a transverse wave is determined by the
height of the crest or depth of the trough
The amplitude of a compressional wave is determined by the
closeness of the compressional waves. The closer the
compressional waves and the farther the rarefaction lines.
The Behavior of Waves
What is reflection?
•When a wave bounces off an object and changes
direction – this is reflection.
What is refraction?
•Refraction is the bending of a wave as it passes from one
medium to another.
•A wave travels at different speeds in different things. When a
wave traveling a certain speed moves into another medium, it
will either increase in speed or decrease in speed, resulting in
a change in direction.
What is diffraction?
Diffraction occurs when an object causes a wave to
change direction and bend around it.
Diffraction also
occurs when
passing through
a small opening.
The waves
diffract and
spread out as
they pass
through the
hole.
What is wave interference?
Occurs when two or more waves collide and occupy the
same region of space and continue on.
Waves interfere in one of two ways: Constructive
Interference and Destructive Interference.
What is wave interference?
Occurs when two or more waves collide and occupy the
same region of space and continue on.
Waves interfere in one of two ways: Constructive
Interference and Destructive Interference.
What is Resonance?
•Many objects have a natural
frequency – vibrates in a
regular pattern.
•Resonance occurs when
whenever a sound wave has
the same frequency as the
natural frequency of an object.
• The sound will cause the
object with the same natural
frequency to vibrate.
•http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/sound/u11l
4a.cfm
• Pushing a person on a swing is a
common example of resonance.
The loaded swing (a pendulum)
has a natural frequency of
oscillation, its resonant
frequency, and resists being
pushed at a faster or slower
rate.
Resonance of instruments
• Many musical instruments
have resonance. The wood
of a guitar or violin
resonates with the same
frequency as the string.
• It is the goal of musicians to
find instruments that
possess the ability to vibrate
with sets of frequencies
that create desired sounds
What is sound?
Sound is a compressional wave which travels through the air
through a series of compressions and rarefactions.
What is sound?
• Sound travels through
different media.
• We hear sound which
usually travels through air.
Sound travels through other
media as well, such as water
and various solids.
• Sound travels different
speeds in different media.
Sound typically travels faster
in a solid that a liquid and
faster in a liquid than a gas.
• The denser the medium, the
faster sound will travel.
• The higher the temperature,
the faster the particles of the
medium will move and the
faster the particles will carry
the sound.
What is sound intensity?
• Sound intensity is the energy that the sound wave possesses.
The greater the intensity of sound the farther the sound will
travel and the louder the sound will appear.
• Loudness is very closely related to intensity. Loudness is the
human perception of the sound intensity. The unit for loudness is
decibels.
Loudness in Decibels
How is frequency related to pitch?
•The pitch of a sound wave is directly related to frequency. A highpitched sound has a high frequency (a screaming girl). A low-pitched
sound has a low frequency (a fog-horn).
•A healthy human ear can hear frequencies in the range of 20 Hz to
20,000 Hz. Humans cannot hear below 20 Hz. Sounds below this
frequency are termed infrasonic.
•Sounds above 20,000 Hz are termed ultrasonic. Some animals, such as
dogs, can hear frequencies in this range in which humans cannot hear.
•http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/sound
Wavelength and frequency are inversely proportional.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TKF6nFzpHBU
What is the Doppler Effect?
The Doppler Effect is the apparent change in frequency detected when
the sound is moving relative to the hearer.
Video-Excellent example of Doppler Effect with car horn (26 seconds)
Video-A Motorcycle does the Doppler Effect (27 seconds)
Big Bang Theory Doppler Effect
Using Sound
What is Acoustics?
•Acoustics is the study of
sound and ways to optimize
the hearing of sound inside
various structures.
What is echolocation?
What is sonar?
•Sonar is a system that uses the reflection of underwater sound
waves to detect objects. This has been used to find sunken
ships and schools of fish.
Fly UP