Homer and the Greek ideal - unesdoc

by user








Homer and the Greek ideal - unesdoc
ij^Bi^i^Bi. i
Teachers, guides and mentors
down the ages
Ok i
wL "
M 1205- 9209 -22.00 F
at Expo 92
A joint venture involving the entire United Nations family, with Unesco acting as the co-ordinating agency, the
United Nations Pavilion at Expo 92, in Seville, was built with the sponsorship of the Banco Bilbao Vizcaya (BBV) and
with the backing of the Expo 92 organizers. Designed by Spanish architect José Ramón Rodríguez Gautier, the
building takes the form of a glass and concrete cube, representing humanity, set within a metal quarter of a
sphere, symbolizing the universe. It is located within the Exhibition grounds, beside an artificial lake, not far from
the pavilions of Spain and the autonomous Spanish communities.
The interior of the pavilion, specially devised under the supervision of Australian architect and interior desi¬
gner Peter Hale, includes reception facilities, a shop and an information area in which details of the activities of
the United Nations system are displayed. Several other floors are devoted to a joint audiovisual presentation,
lasting fifteen minutes and entitled: Creating a Better World.
"Special Days" are regularly held during which the alms and activities of specific institutions of the United
Nations family are presented. A joint "United Nations/UivEsco Day" will be held on 8 September, in the presence of
the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the Director-General of Unesco. On this occasion, Mr. Federico
Mayor will present the three literacy prizes awarded annually by Unesco.
Atahualpa Yupanqui
talks to Manuel Osorio
«The knowledge
Editorial by Bahgat Elnadi and Adel Rifaat
Master and Pupil, oil on
canvas, attributed to the
Italian artist Francesco
Fontebasso (1709-1769).
Education in epic mode
Musée de Tours, France.
Homer and the Greek ideal
Back cover:
Master and disciple
by Bérénice Geoffroy
commune beside a grotto.
Mediators between God and Man
18th-century Indian
The pilgrim's way
by Leili Eshgui
The guru and his disciple
by Dima S. Oueini
F Unesco in action
Masters of world thought
From Socrates to Spinoza
by Pierre-François Moreau
A vision for Latin America
Simón Rodríguez, champion of mass education
Unesco in action
by Jorge López Palma
world heritage
The statue of Liberty
A MIND for freedom
by Suzanne Patterson
by Rachid Sabbaghi
by Isabelle Leymarie
The swan song of a master
by Kazutoshi Watanabe
Teachers at the crossroads
Jacky Beillerot talks to Rachid Sabbaghi
Rethinking the role of the teacher
A new partnership
Commentary by
by Jacques Hallak
Special consultant:
Rachid Sabbaghi
Unesco and the training of teachers
by André Lokisso lu'Epotu
Federico Mayor
"The Governments of the States parties to this Constitution on behalf of their peoples declare,
"that since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed . . .
"that a peace based exclusively upon the political and economic arrangements of governments would not be a peace which could secure
the unanimous, lasting and sincere support of the peoples of the world, and that the peace must therefore be founded, if it is not to fail,
upon the intellectual and moral solidarity of mankind.
"For these reasons, the States parties ... are agreed and determined to develop and to increase the means of communication between
their peoples and to employ these means for the purposes of mutual understanding and a truer and more perfect knowledge of each
45th year Published monthly
in 33 languages and in Braille
other's lives
Extract from the Preamble to the Constitution of Unesco, London, 16 November 1945
talks to Manuel Osorio
"We walk upon this earth, and
when we are very tired we find
refuge beneath it." A wandering
minstrel who sang of nature and
of humankind and loved the
freedom of the open road, the
Argentine musician and poet
Atahualpa Yupanqui died in
Paris a few days after granting
us this interview. His real name
was Hector Roberto Chavero.
His mother was Basque and his
father was of Indian origin. He
signed his poems and songssome one thousand five hundred
in all"Atahualpa Yupanqui", in
tribute to the last two Indian
chiefs to fight against the
conquistadores. Inspired by his
fervent love of the Indians and
peoples of South America, his
works have achieved
international recognition. His
singing voice, with its simple
Your name has become a legend in Latin
America and your songs, music and poems
the pure expression of Latin-American cul¬
tural intermingling have become an inte¬
gral part of the tradition of the continent.
How did you come to compose this vast and
exceptionally beautiful range of works?
- I was born of this lineage, of the deep
mainstream of South American tradition.
Neither the indigenous peoples nor the
Quechua language are foreign to me. My
family is also very much of the same stamp
and stems from this same lineage. As an ado¬
lescent, when the time came for me to
choose what I wanted to do, since I was too
poor to study my first love, medicine, I
began strumming away on the guitar. At first
I viewed this as no more than a temporary
occupation. At fourteen I wrote my first
poems, which I signed "Atahualpa", not rea¬
lizing that in so doing I had sealed my fate.
At nineteen I composed my first serious
song, Caminito del Indio ("The Path of the
Indian"), and went to the capital for the first
time. Naturally, nobody paid any attention
to me and I was unable to give a single
recital, so, for a while, I accompanied other
singers on my guitar. Then one day I decided
to set off for the interior, to the mountains
and the pampas, to the provinces of Entre
Ríos, Córdoba and Tucumán, where the gau¬
chos and the peasants live. Later I went on to
Bolivia and Peru. There I found other grist
for my mill Peruvian melodies and laments
and Bolivian songs. On my return to
Tucumán, having got to know our lands, I
found the people ready to listen to me.
buy. It is the same in every country the
poor cannot afford to buy books. I bor¬
rowed those señors' books, I read them,
copied them and noted down references and
quotations which I carefully preserved, buil¬
ding up for myself a "borrowed" culture.
The open road was my university where I
graduated in solitude and my tutor was
experience. I roamed the length and breadth
revealing his interior life and
You have always been a great wanderer.
Was it from your journeyings, from your
contact with the people and from your
appreciation of their deepest feelings that
your songs were bomf
- 1 have teen a wanderer all my life, keeping
my eyes open and my ears cocked. In this
way I got to know all sorts and conditions of
men. If I happened to come across a rich
vision to the peoples of all
señor who hacía good library, I would make
friends with him and was thus able to read
Apure, in Venezuela, to the mountains of'
Colombia and throughout Chile, from
Iquique, in the north, to Punta Arenas, in
the south. In each country I went from
village to village, visiting the taverns and
studying the people, their way of life, their
songs, the food they eat, their traditions,
books that I would never have been able to
their festivities, their sorrows and their
directness and nostalgic
overtones, is the voice of a man
who has faced the often harsh
realities of his native soil
of our America, from the banks of the
funeral wakes, everything. In my jour-
neyings across America, I always tried to put
myself in other people's shoes, tempering
my curiosity with discretion. I can certainly
say that I know America in all its aspects and
I have roamed the continent as though it
were one huge country with here and there a
milestone stating "this region is called Peru",
or "Bolivia", or "Ecuador". These markers
on the human scale, as seen from below, on
have been the cause of many a conflict
among politicians, but they are of no
foot or on horseback.
and death and to see what lay hidden behind
reality and behind the secretive ways of the
people. My education was based on a mix¬
ture of tradition and legend.
What can music and poetry contribute to
concern to people like me. The open road,
poverty,' the air we breathe, a well-roasted
joint followed by a piece of pumpkin,
- 1 think that music and poetry can help the
or cultural boundaries?
Nature, our ancient myths, the native
- These I have crossed with the same love of
the land, with the same respect for human
wisdom of the people these are the things
that concern us. My grandfather used to tell
dignity and with no sense of shame at having
me that the white herons that I saw on the
the look of an Indian, something that in
pampas were born when the moonlight
many parts of our continent people try to
hide, thus denying their roots and their
ancestry, instead of taking pride in them as
part of our being and of our culture.
settled between the rushes on the waters of
men, since neither are linked to a specific
organization or any kind of political project
or plan. By their very nature they are
concerned with human values as a global
whole. When politicians claim to subscribe
to these values, they succeed only in being
You were not restricted by national, ethnic
the lake. This is how I learned everything I
know from the people, from their songs.
This was how I learned the meaning of life
world and encourage harmony between
restrictive and divisive. As one who knew
nothing of the seamy side of life I used to
believe that the great names in the fields of
politics, economics and culture were men of
great honour, erudition and dignity. When I
learned that they were almost invariably
unscrupulous hypocrites, my illusions vani¬
shed instantly.
"When the America of the Indians opened
its belly to give birth to the mestizo, the soul
of the Andean people witnessed also the
birth of a mestizo instrument the charango
(a guitar). It had taut steel strings, a short
We live in a confused world in which
finger-board and a sound-box fashioned
extremist attitudes hold sway. Fortunately,
there are always some clear-minded people
from the shell of the armadillo of the cor¬
who carry the torch of cultural progress and
mutual understanding. In spite of every¬
thing, hope dissipates the darkest shadows.
The task will be difficult because the times
we live in are more complex than ever
before, yet full of unimagined opportunities.
' I have always thought of music and poetry
as being ideal means of encouraging frater¬
nity among human beings. "Love one an¬
other" was not just a clever remark or an
advertising slogan; it was the expression of a
profound human aspiration, pronounced
some two thousand years ago, which people,
unfortunately, seem to have lost sight of.
dillera the quirquincho and cemented in
place with clay from the mountain-tops, a
mixture of clay dust and sulphur. Its pegs
were made of applewood or tamarind and,
according to its place of origin and the skill
of the maker, it had eight, ten or twelve
strings. Like the mestizo who plucks it, the
charango expresses itself in Spanish, but
thinks and experiences its deepest emotions
in Quechua, in the language ofsilence and of
the untamed wind, of daybreak and of linger¬
linked and that they aliform part of Culture
with a capital "C".
ing twilight. As the sun sets on the colonial
era, its golden tints light up the mountaintops where Pacha mama (Mother Earth)
dwells, calling to her copper-skinned chil¬
dren: 'Runachay, ama conkaichu!' ('My
Indian son, do not forget me')."
I do not create my works; first I live
them and then I express them. I first lived
- 1 believe that Culture, like Civilization, is a
my poems, my songs, my books, one by
single entity and that there is no such thing
as "modern culture" as opposed to "yes¬
terday's culture". There are stages, moments
and levels of culture that develop within a
single Culture that is the heritage of all man¬
one, through all their stages. I do not sing or
write to please the public. I take great care
not to lapse into clichés about the pictu¬
resque Indian, with his poncho and strange
expressions. My father came from a very old
family, from a people from the remote
mountains of Santiago del Estero, from the
forests of the Quechua. This is why I have
such an affinity with the Indians and am so
attracted by their language and traditions. I
am bilingual with a rather good mastery of
Quechua. It is a very poetic language, but
you won't hear me singing in Quechua just
to put on an "original" performance. I
would rather die first. There are some things
that demand great respect. One should not
get involved in that kind of shoddy business.
You once declared that all cultures were
kind. When relations between nations and
cultures deteriorate, are obstructed, or suffer
setbacks, Culture languishes and tends to
disappear. Culture with a capital "C"
consists of an aggregate of values that exalts
mankind from within and which embraces
the whole vast world.
What is the artist's mission in all this?
- Mine, at any rate, is to produce simple
couplets and the purest melodies I can and
thus to embody a fragment of the world, to
portray human beings as they weep, love
and contemplate the world and other human
beings. I am sad when I see their sorrows,
angry when I see them exploited, happy
when I see them dancing, when their eyes
shine with hope, or even just because it is
In my songs I prefer to capture for the
peasant the profound truths of his nights and
days, his sorrows, his defiance, his overall
experience of life, but I have avoided beco¬
ming an "expert" or a "professional specia¬
list" in the songs and poetry of our region.
Sunday and the weather is fine. My task is to
live with my eyes open.
Taken as a whole, your music and poetry
offers aüne example of uncompromising art,
born of cultural and ethnic intermingling,
which makes no concessions to fashion.
- Thirty years ago, I wrote these words
about this intermingling from -which deve¬
loped our music and our instruments:
dominant classes is pure and perfect, whereas
the idioms and dialects of the underdogs are
somehow impure and imperfect. In Latin
America we have succeeded in incorporating
our history, our way of being, our persona¬
lity, the way we feel things, into the Spanish
we speak here and, in so doing, we have
enriched it. From a single speech form we
have created our own language which
reflects a specific reality.
Revealing this reality is also the task of
the artist. When I was a boy at school, on the
first days of winter we went out to the play¬
ground, in the sunlight, and sang "Sur le
pont d'Avignon, on y danse, on y danse". I
sang this old French round song in the
middle of the pampas, even though I had
never seen the sea or a city and had not the
remotest idea what France was. Much later,
when I discovered that geography encom¬
passed a great deal more than the country¬
side around the River Plate, I wondered why
in my country there was no song about the
tree that I saw every day on my way to and
from school. We were denied the tree, the
countryside, that would have enabled us to
grow up to become men in touch with reality.
One ofthe great failings of our school books
was that they taught us some very lovely
songs, but songs that were of no concern to
us. A pretty piece of deception. Since then I
have written a number of round songs for
children in the hope that they will recognize
within them their own countryside and their
own reality, and will retain their love of the
land when they grow up.
You have always remained insulated from
that fascination with the exotic, stereotyped
view of Latin America which is becoming
the fashion in France and the rest of Europe,
a fashion that feeds on a certain feeling of
guilt with regard to the Third World.
- I have never been an adept of the protest
song, which has indeed become fashionable
in France and elsewhere. To be a profes¬
sional singer of protest songs involves lying
to the world, even though the lies may be
appealing. There are other elements in life
besides the superficialities of politics. If you
want to make known the current problems
You have also always devoted much atten¬
tion to Spanish as spoken in Latin America
- I have always been interested in the Spa¬
nish language and have been an avid reader
of Cervantes. In Latin America we speak an
dies and learn the life of the wheatfields, the
ancient form of Spanish on to which has
been grafted a wealth of specific American¬
isms. There is a tendency to make the arbi¬
trary judgement that the language of the
maizefields, the work-gangs and the mare
treading the corn to separate it from the
chaff. From that vantage point you can write
songs that will record and transmit the cul-
of the Third World, the intolerable situation,
in which it is placed and which dishonours
all men, you will have to go back to the past,
to the ancestors, hear the deep-rooted melo¬
twenty years and all my archives are here. I
have always continued to write and I have a
dozen or so books to my name. They are not
all about Latin America, for I have always
been interested in other countries and other
peoples. A few years ago I published a book
in Madrid entitled Del algarrobo al cerezo
("From the Carob to the Cherry Tree"),
from the Carob tree of my native land to the
cherry tree of Japan. It arose from my first
visit to Japan in 1968 and records my first
impressions of a country I have visited
several times since. During my first visit I
adopted the Socratic method of discovery. I
was continually asking questions: "Who's
statue is this?" "What is the name of that
mountain?" "Where does the wind come
from?" "Which is the sturdiest tree?" "What
are your traditions?" In this way I learned
that in Japan there are many religions, inclu¬
ding that of the Ainu people of the Soporo
region, which I studied in some detail. In
another of my books, I took the liberty of
reproaching the great French writer of
fables, La Fontaine, of having lied to me
when I was a boy with his story of the ant
and the grasshopper. La Fontaine extols the
merits of the hard-working, provident ant,
who survives the winter, but condemns the
grasshopper, who does nothing but sing and
disappears when winter comes. But have you
ever heard of anybody going to buy pesti¬
cide to get rid of grasshoppers? So where
does the truth lie? The virtues of the indus¬
trious ant are vaunted but everybody tries to
get rid of him. I had the feeling that I had
been told a lie and that fables for children
Atahualpa Yupanqui (1908-1992).
did not tell the truth.
imprecations, calls for vengeance, hatred and
blood, which blind us to these deeper values.
of them for a big fee." Knowing my origins,
you can imagine how impatient I become
with all these passing fashions, with all these
You have lived in Paris for many years now.
Has your relationship with France and the
French always been cordial, open and har¬
Otherwise, the listener will feel cheated, that
"isms" which insist that artists should act as
something is lacking, because there has been
no real communication. I prefer an artist to
tell me the whole story and present me with
a complete picture of the reality of a situa¬
standard-bearers for this or that cause. This
I have always had a very cordial relationship
is a pity, but, with me at least, it does not
tural roots of our peoples rather than mere
tion. I am convinced of this. This is what the
with the people and loyal relationships bet¬
listener wants to know: "Where do you
come from?" "Tell me about your mother,
your family and your neighbours." "Tell me
about the beauty of your homeland before it
ween different nations and cultures. Secta¬
with the French based firmly on mutual res¬
pect. I never tried to teach them Quechua
and I have never learned to speak French
very well. In all the time that I have been
here I have not attempted to make Indians
rian attitudes must not be allowed to limit
out of them, nor have I succeeded in beco¬
our horizons.
ming French. One thing is certain, we have
remained on good terms because we have
was so shamefully despoiled." "Well then,
At the age of eighty-three are you still
work. I am not interested in being in fashion.
I seek another path, that of true friendship
remained who we are. I contribute what I
do you still feel the pain of losing it?" "Of
composing songs ana writing?
course you do! So tell me about it and I will
listen to you with respect. But if you only
want to weep and cry out for vengeance,
without trying to understand, go away and
hide; for it is more manly to hide away and
- I have published almost a thousand songs
have my songs, a touch of atmosphere, of
colour, the sufferings and the hopes of my
and I still have a few in reserve, many of
native land, that immense continent we
them complete with music. While I have
know as Latin America. And this is how
breath, and if I am given the time, I hope to
sing them one day. If not, someone else will
sing them. I have lived in Paris for nearly
men come together and, little by little, in
spite of all the obstacles, discover the uni¬
versal links which secretly unite them.
mourn one's sorrows than to make a show
'ïTH the advent of mass education and all the problems
which this entails for modern societies, the traditional role of
the teacher is increasingly being called into question. Indeed
today, for the very first time, the question is being asked as to
whether the teacher is necessary to the learning process at all.
Knockedfrom the pedestal ofpublic esteem by the sudden
proliferation of new sources of knowledge, the teacher has
become merely one transmitter of knowledge among many
Such questions, however, implicitly overlook the teacher's
most important function. The teacher remains the
indispensable initiator, the one who, through personal contact
with his or her pupils, awakens the spirit and kindles the vital
spark. Breathing life and meaning into the inheritance they
transmit, teachers enable theirpupils to advance beyond mere
accumulation of knowledge and to reach the stage of creative
assimilation. In fulfilling this function they follow in the
footsteps of the great Masters whose names are the glory ofpast
civilizations. Midwives of truth like Socrates, visionaries,
spiritual mentors, educators, guides to life and to thought,
teachers are the models to which their pupils and society as a
whole can refer.
It is doubtless true that, in a number of cases, the authority
with which teachers are invested has been sullied by some
abusive exercise ofpower; hence the current critical attack to
which it is subject, at a time when the accelerating growth of
technology and the continuous expansion of mass information
and communication services are contributing daily to its
démystification. If this authority is to be re-asserted, its
intrinsic nature will have to change.
The teacher will be with us tomorrow, as he is today, but he
will no longer be the same. The shadowy figure of the Master/
teacher of the future is being shaped under our very eyes.
Bahgat Elnadi and Adel Rifaat
Homer and the Greek ideal
by Bérénice Geoffroy
THE two great epic poems of ancient
Greece, Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, have
been called
"The Bible of the
world". An inexhaustible source of fable and
myth, they lay bare before us the system of
values of an élite warrior society. Leaving aside
their literary qualities, the Homeric epics
become a kind of manual of ethics or treatise
on the ideal. Regarded as "classics" in the same
Homer the story-teller,
by the French artist Félix
Boisselier (1776-1811).
way as, later, were the works of Dante in Italy
and Shakespeare in England, they were essen¬
tial reading for any cultivated Greek. Alexander
the Great himself is said to have carried them
with him on his campaigns.
Behind the shadowy figure of Homer the
poet, there seems to loom the silhouette of the
archetypal educator, the "transmitter of culture"
that one comes across in many civilizations.
Whether the works of "Homer" were born of
the inspiration of a single man or of a number of
bards (a question that does not concern us
here), the epic became a "teaching art", contain¬
ing elements of both technology and ethics,
which was to have considerable influence on
the poets and philosophers of later centuries.
Did not Plato himself accord to Homer the
glorious title of "Educator of Greece"?
The Iliad and the
Odyssey (generally
thought to date from the middle and the end of
the eighth century BC respectively) are peopled
with gods and heroes who provide models for
posterity and are the instruments of an inci¬
pient paideia (education system). Far from
being a kind of spontaneous emanation from
the people, as was the accepted view in the
nineteenth century, the epic was a complex
creation which became the main instrument in
the training of the individual and his or her
integration into society.
Like Valmiki, the supposed author of the
Ramayana, like the Akkadian, Kirghiz and
'Tibetan poets, and like Scheherazade of the
Thousand and One Nights, Homer draws on
heroic inspiration to convey a moral message.
The French philologist and historian Georges
Dumézil was not mistaken when he declared that
the Indo-European epics were "works of mature
reflection, carefully thought through by talented,
ingenious, learned experts" with the backing of a
warrior class imbued with aristocratic ideals.
Paths of glory
As the German historian Werner Jaeger has
pointed out: "The history of Greek culture is
paralleled in most important respects by the
history of Greek literature; indeed, literature, in
the sense that this was understood by its earl¬
iest creators, was the expression in words of
bative ideal, which saw life as an athletic com¬
petition and was to become one of the most
significant features of the Greek psyche.
the process by which the Greek ideal was
formed." The word paideia did not come into
use until the fifth century BC, but the word
Gradually, however, the notion of nobility of
aretee (virtue, in its original sense) occurs fre¬
mind came to be added to that of nobility of
quently in the epics, signifying a mixture of
deed, heralding the concept of kalokagathia
manly pride, courtly behaviour and soldierly
(beauty/good), which Plato and Aristotle were
valour. In Homer, aretee means not only indi¬
to define some centuries later. "One should
vidual merit but also the perfection of things
strive to be a good orator as well as a valiant war¬
superhuman, and then, finally, the essential
rior", declared Phoenix, mentor of Achilles, the
quality of a noble man. The root of the word
archetypal Greek hero, epitome of refined
aretee is the same as that of aristos (best), from
humanity and all-round example for posterity.
which is derived the English word "aristocrat"
Nobility of spirit the manifestation of this
moral and intellectual superiority was accom¬
panied by a certain "self-esteem" which, devoid
of egoism, reflected an aspiration to "Beauty" as
it was later defined by Aristotle. Prepared to give
in the sense of member of the nobility.
Used at first to extol the manly strength and
skill of the soldier or the athlete, then primarily
ardour in battle, aretee gradually took on a wider
ethical significance. In addition to the notion of
manly valour, it came to take on the sense of
aidos (duty) and its counterpart in case of dis¬
honour, nemesis (retributive justice). Bearing this
in mind, it becomes more clearly evident that the
Iliad is really a tragedy of offended honour, as
portrayed through the wrath of Achilles. The
unending struggle to achieve supremacy over
up everything and to fight to the death to gain
the reward of imperishable glory, such perfect
heroes as Ajax and Achilles were ready to sacri¬
fice their physical being in the service of a higher
ideal. In so doing they laid the foundations of the
classical pedagogical tradition that Plato and
Aristotle were to develop to supreme heights.
French journalist specializing
in archaeology and the history
Master and pupil
one's peers ("Always be the best and maintain
of art. She contributes to a
your superiority over others"
number of magazines and
In early Greek thought, no distinction was
publications including
such was the
precept that Peleus gave to his son Achilles)
now developed, for the first time, into the com-
Archaeologia, Muséart and
the encyclopaedia Clartés.
example, the Greeks always looked upon the
faced with the awesome, irrational power of the
goddess Ate, the personification of blind folly.
Homer contrasts the unbending Achilles
with the gentle, docile figure of Telemachus,
destined in turn to become a glorious hero after
a long apprenticeship. In Book I of the
Odyssey, Athena herself, taking on the form of
Mentes, gives the youth his first lessons. In
Book II, disguised as Ulysses' old friend, the
wise Mentor, the goddess accompanies Telema¬
chus on his journeyings to Pylos and to Sparta,
watching over him with benevolent affection.
Left, the centaur Chiron
tutors Achilles in the martial
Today the very name of Mentor has passed into
common usage, symbolizing the deep and abi¬
ding affection that a Master feels for his pupil.
Like the Iliad, the Odyssey (particularly the
Books primarily concerned with Telemachus),
follows a clear educational plan, providing its
arts. Fresco in the Château
young hero, as well as the wider circle of read¬
de Fontainebleau, France, by
ers for whose edification it was created, with
the Italian artist II Rosso
Greek red-figure vase (5th
glorious examples to follow. Just as Meleager
was evoked in the Iliad as an example for
Achilles, in the Odyssey Orestes becomes the
model for Telemachus, the paradigm to copy so
as to fulfil his heroic destiny. Far from being
simply a literary stylistic form, the epic is here
century BC).
transformed into an educational tool.
Below, putting the finishing
touches to a statue of a
Greek warrior. Detail from a
poet as "the educator of the people", in the
broadest, most profound meaning of the term,
as the Master and, in a sense, "the architect of
the nation". The Homeric epics proclaim their
pedagogical mission by emphasizing the close
and privileged relationship between master and
pupil. Book IX of the Iliad draws a remarkable
picture of the education of a young noble,
immortalizing the educator in the person of
Achilles' old tutor, Phoenix, the faithful vassal
of king Peleus, father of Achilles. In Homer's
epic, Phoenix appears to replace the wise cen¬
taur Chiron, whom other literary traditions
portray as the tutor, not only of Achilles but
also of Asclepius, Actaeon, Jason and Nestor.
Perhaps Homer deliberately chose to replace
the centaur, half-man half-beast, by the sym¬
bolic knightly figure of Phoenix, as the only
man capable of tempering Achilles' wrath.
Phoenix making his exceptionally long
appeal (one hundred verses) to Achilles to set
aside his anger is the very model of a Master
addressing his pupil. Like any didactic address,
Phoenix's harangue includes an edifying
example in this case that of Meleager's fruitless
wrath. As Achilles' comrade in arms and at
court, tutor, friend and virtual father, Phoenix
becomes the hero's moral guide. Yet how vain
appear all the moral resources of education when
Dervishes (members
of a Muslim mystic
fraternity) in a Turkish
ThePilgrim's way
by Leili Eshgui
FROM the moment the existence of an invi¬
who, tormented by this mystery, sets out upon
sible God is postulated, two paths open
Iranian philosopher and
through the law that he transmits via his envoy;
this quest is a mystic. The encounter with the
divine becomes the highest human adventure.
It is a love tryst, for only through love does the
but he does not reveal himself in that law. To
hidden God let himself be known.
know God it is not enough merely to obey this
law; something else is required. Hence, in
parallel with a legalistic religion, there is the
affirmation of a mystical faith, a quest whose
theme and driving principle is the desire to
But to encounter God face to face is impos¬
sible. The scriptures tell us so. From the begin¬
ning, the God of monotheism warns: "Thou
canst not see my face, for there shall no man see
know God.
humankind life's savour but also its greatest
risk. The unknowable God turns out, for man,
to-face meetings have taken place stand as proof.
The case of al-Hallaj is a good example. At
the conclusion of a spiritual quest undertaken
in solitude and poverty, he declares: "I am the
to be the mystery of his own existence. He
Truth" ("An-al-Haq "). That is his death sen-
sociologist, is the author of
a number of publications on
Iranian society. Her latest
book Un temps entre les
temps. L 'imam, le chiisme
et l'Iran (1992, "Time out of
time. The Imam, Shi'ism and
Iran") has just been
published by Éditions du Cerf,
Paris. She is currently
working on a study of the
philosophy of monotheism
and on the religious theatre
of Iran.
me and live." The rare occasions on which face-
tence. Life, distance are swept away and he is
fused with the Other an inevitably fatal
Those that love the hidden one take a more
tortuous but safer path; they aim for a nonfusional encounter with the Other, and for that
they must make a detour. The encounter
remains the crucial event, an irreversible rup¬
ture. But if the pilgrim is not to be consumed
like al-Hallaj, a mediator is necessary.
The mediator
It is through the concept of mediation that one
essential facet of the master's
role is best
understood one that needs to be distingui¬
shed both from the image of the possessive and
despotic master, the guardian of truth, and also
from the more common ¡mage of the master as
the necessary state of "surrender", "detach¬
ment", "self-abnegation", "annihilation of the
self". This mystical vocabulary attempts to des¬
cribe the most suitable state for welcoming the
Other. Other expressions such as "going out of
oneself" or "entering into ecstasy" characterize
the moment of rupture associated with the
experience, the opening up to another exis¬
tence. That is why the mystical experience is
often compared to rebirth.
Besides mediating between heaven and
earth, the master also mediates between the dis¬
The 12th-century Persian
ciple's two lives: that preceding the encounter
and that following it. But in this horizontal
poet Farid-al-Din. Late
sense he effects mediation through rupture, in
18th-century Mughal
educator or initiator.
Teachers of this latter kind initiate their
pupils into adult life by passing on to them the
heritage of earlier masters the knowledge that
will enable them in their turn to continue the
tradition. Links in a long chain, they are the
guarantors of life's continuity. Through them
are handed down, from one generation to an¬
other, those elements that re-create the ties that
bind society together. Masters of this type are
universal figures, found in every traditional
But the master who mediates between God
and humankind is very different. He helps to
bring about an encounter in the course of
which man will see a part of his secret revealed.
In such cases, the master seems to hold the key
to the mystery of existence. He is a third-party
substitute through whom the love of God
allows itself to be transferred. For the disciple,
the encounter-event opens up the path he has
longed for, the new route for which he has
been searching. And the master is the agent of
this spiritual revolution.
In this case the master's principal role is not
to transmit knowledge or a tradition (even if
that aspect remains part of his function), but to
make the disciple experience an inner event that
breaks the flow of his previous existence and
marks the point of departure for a new one.
What the disciple experiences can be neither
transmitted nor apprehended. At the very
most, an individual can try to prepare to meet
it. The master is there to support his efforts in
this hazardous quest for there is no certainty
that the event will happen.
The singularity of this procedure lies in the
implicit intention of provoking a naturally
hazardous occurrence that springs solely from
the disciple's ardent desire: which explains the
reaching out of the seeker's whole being
towards a state of poverty, purification, the
annihilation of everything which would stand
in the way of being prepared.
The master's gamble is to let chance loose.
He might consider physical routines and spirit¬
ual exercises necessary to bring the disciple to
contrast to the mediation in continuity offered
by the transmitter of knowledge.
siderable period of time, the mendicant said to
him: "I wonder how, busy as I see you are with
this world and its affairs, you will die". Attar
replied, "In the same way that you will". Where¬
upon the dervish lay down on the floor, put his
head on his begging bowl and gave up the
ghost. Attar "went out of himself", abandoned
the things of this world and set out ... to
The master also checks that rules and duties
are properly observed in the course of the dis¬
ciple's gradual progress. In the exercises that St.
Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556), the founder of
the Society of Jesus, devised for his followers,
for instance, the master, when he intervenes
become what he became. The words and deeds
verbally, makes enigmatic proposals that, far
from satisfying the disciple, simply steer him
from one question to another.
of the mendicant did the job of a master, inter¬
rupting the normal flow of things and opening
up a new existence.
Why did an apparently banal circumstance
provoke a spiritual event for the future mystic?
Sometimes an external accident can become
a spiritual event in its own right and can set in
motion an unforeseen process. It can then take
Because it touched a hidden area within him, a
on the role of master.
One day like any other, the celebrated
Muslim mystic Attar was exercising his profes¬
sion as an apothecary when a dervish a
Muslim mendicant monk came into his shop.
After having watched him at work for a con-
Saint Ignatius of Loyola,
portrait by an artist of the
17th-century French school
of painting.
part of his constitutive mystery. The shadow of
God passing over him drew him out of himself
and set him on an unknown path.
In such cases the master fulfils only a tem¬
porary function: once the encounter has taken
place, the mediator loses his reason for exist¬
ence. He effaces himself to reveal the empty
space through which the disciple must make his
own, independent way. Everything that trans¬
pires between a real master and a real disciple
consists of bringing about spiritual autonomy
of this kind. In the ecstatic moment of the
event itself, the master must disappear.
The unique
The scriptures themselves sometimes take a
metaphorical approach to essential truths. The
monotheistic scriptures of Christianity and
Shi'ism provide a theoretical framework for
mediation. The figure of the mediating master
also exists in Judaism and Sunnism, of course,
but the singularity of Christianity and Shi'ism
lies in the fact that a mediator is envisaged in
each religion's doctrine, in the persons of
Christ and the Imam respectively.
Now each of these two figures, emblematic
as they are of the encounter-event, physically
vanishes; and it is precisely these vanishing
mediators who are called Master. The term is
rarely employed for Moses and Muhammad,
certainly in the mystical sense. But Jesus is, for
Christians, the Master par excellence, and Ali is
the Mawla ("master") not just for the Shi'ites
but also for most Sunni mystics.
Like Christ, the Imam is the point of
encounter between humankind and God. The
empty tomb of Jesus, the well where the hidden
Imam of Shi'ism disappeared are the blank
spaces from which believers set out on their
quest. For Christian and Shi'ite mystics, Jesus
and Ali remain invisible masters, functioning
like their living counterparts.
The role of the mediating master is of
course not exclusive to monotheism, but it is
connected with the uniqueness of the hidden
being. It exists in other religions and societies
in so far as they admit of a concealed, unknown
zone and elect a unique image of the divine, for
the object of adoration the missing figure
who is sought but stays out of sight-1is always
unique. An awareness of this quality is perhaps
what, in monotheistic faiths, leads the mystical
experience to express itself in terms of love; the
quest has inspired whole pages of love-songs
from mystics. The mediating master tempora¬
rily bears the weight of divine love. Christ and
the Imam become emblems of love.
Jesus Christ is a complex case, for he is at
one and the same time Father and Son, the
word and its incarnation. The mediating master
shades off into the absolute master, who is
none other than God himself. By this ambiva¬
lence, Christianity reveals that there is indeed
an intrinsic connection between God, the
Absolute, and his mediator, and that a confu¬
sion of roles is possible.
The tyrant
This leads us to examine another image of the
master, almost the opposite of the one we have
been describing: the master as dominus (pos¬
sessor), from whom no autonomy is possible,
whose slave and eternal dependent the disciple
A similar multiplicity of meanings is at
work in the Arab word mawla, which can
mean both friend and possessor. When a word
has two different senses (and particularly if
they are contradictory), it means there is a link
making it possible to slip from one meaning to
the other. The distance between the master
who initiates the disciple into exploring his
own inner self and then effaces himself once his
pupil has found his own way and the master
who crushes all personal initiative and remains
always dominant is both infinitely great and
infinitesimally tiny: great in its consequences,
tiny in the risk of slippage and confusion.
The possessive, despotic master is the one
who does not disappear, who is not content
with fulfilling only the role of mediator, but
who finishes up by confounding himself with
the divine itself. Assimilated to Truth, he
becomes the guardian of all knowledge and all
secrets. In such circumstances, no quest can
have any meaning. The hidden is no longer
hidden; the truth is reduced to knowledge, and
all exploration is closed off for good.
What can lead to such a situation? It is not
merely the doing of the master but of the dis¬
ciple also, of the dialectic that unites them. In
the mystical experience, there are in effect pass¬
ing moments when the mediator comes so
close to God as to become confounded with
Ezekiel, one of the great Old
Him. These are the instants when divine love is
Testament prophets. Detail
transferred upon him and in which the disciple
from a fresco by the 15th-
encounters in the master the shadow of the
century Italian artist Melozzo
Dearly-beloved. Both disciple and master may
da Forli, in the treasury
want to remain attached to those moments.
In such cases, the disciple's need for depen¬
dence and the master's will to power come
together in a dialectic that installs the master in
the place of God, the Absolute Master, the
Being whose mediator he is supposed to be.
And that is tyranny. This is what happens to
chapel of the Basilica at
Loreto, Italy.
masters who wish to persist in their mastery,
and it could hardly be more different from the
self-effacing role of the mediating master.
The easy passage from one image to the
other in fact weighs as a threat on every masterpupil relationship. Far from being peculiar to
monotheism, a similar conflicting duality is
found, in various forms, in the mystic expe¬
riences of other religions, and outside of the
world of religion as well. The master-pupil
pairing, with all its marvellous and disastrous
implications, is a universal one.
Faced with this spiritual power, the whole per¬
sonality of the disciple is Drought into question,
and this is the key factor in the Master/Disciple
relationship. The benevolence of the Master and
the vulnerability of the Disciple are the two
poles of the relationship and the determining fac¬
tors in a quest which will test the Disciple's inner
defences to breaking-point, but yet, going
beyond considerations of personal salvation, will
open up the prospect of liberation (moksha).
Living in the Master's presence will be deci¬
sive. Imitating the Master and acquiring confi¬
dence (sraddha) in him are made easier for the
Disciple by the family-style life the Disciple
lives with his guru in the ashram (communal
religious centre), where the aim is to achieve
spiritual detachment.
As the Hindu spiritual leader Vivekananda
once wrote, if liberation is the objective of the
Disciple's quest, the guru is the living embodi¬
ment of it. "The guru is the radiant mask that
God assumes to come to us. As we look fixedly
upon him, the mask falls away and God is
revealed to us." The Disciple's encounter with
the guru goes beyond the bounds of moral
guidance. The liberation embodied by the
Master implies divesting oneself of all forms of
possessions, and at the same time becoming
detached from the "self" and from the world so
as to achieve pure being.
As in other religious traditions, the Hindu
guru fulfils a Master's threefold functions. As
transmitter of knowledge, he initiates the Dis¬
ciple into the tradition of the community, into
the collective memory. That is his most secular,
outward function. As spiritual guide, he directs
the Disciple's inner journeying, showing him
the "ways" and protecting nim from the perils
of the quest. As mediator, his major function,
he shares his own experience to encourage the
Disciple's spiritual awakening.
To succeed in his or her quest, the Disciple
The Gum andhis Disdple
by Dima S. Oueini
Above, disciple bows to the
Master. Detail from an 18th-
century Indian miniature.
FROM very ancient times, the great texts
that stand out like landmarks in the reli¬
gious history of India
the Brahmanas,
the Upanishads, the Dharma have laid special
emphasis upon the Master/Disciple relation¬
ship in all its diverse forms.
In Sanskrit, the word used for a "spiritual
master" is guru. The primary meaning of guru
is "heavy" or "weighty", in the sense, for
example, of parents' moral weight in relation to
their children or that of the eldest child in rela¬
tion to younger siblings. It is from this concept
that the religious meaning of the word ("vener¬
must share fully in the life of the guru. In the
words of the poet Abhinavagupta: "The Dis¬
ciple's questions and the Master's answers
emerge from the same consciousness." There
are different methods of thought transmission:
direct, from spirit to spirit or from heart to
heart, rather as one candle is lit from another;
the physical, by touch, voice, exchange of
breath and even embrace. Whichever may be
used, the Disciple must keep his defences
lowered and confidently yield to the Master.
Most gurus give a benevolent welcome to
potential Disciples without distinction of caste,
sex, nationality or even religion. This remar¬
kable attitude is no doubt due to the very nature
of the spiritual experience that places the guru
beyond the sway of external rules. It may be due
to the Tantric influence and also, perhaps, to a
certain symbiosis between Islam and Hinduism.
According to Jean Filliozat, a French spe¬
cialist on India, the guru, like the Muslim sufi,
expels the self "from this phenomenal world"
and places "all its being in the eternal equili¬
brium that is God".
able") derives.
In the spiritual sense, the guru teaches how
to live rather than how to think, and by his
moral "weight" becomes a model to follow.
DIMA S. OUEINI, who is of Lebanese origin, is a
specialist in Linguistics and in Arabic. She is at present
preparing a study on poetics and the translation of
sacred writings.
From Socrates to Spinoza
by Pierre-François Moreau
IN the Western world, philosophy is often
seen as an autonomous activity involving
the use of reason, free from interference by
the authorities and answerable only to itself,
The Philosopher's Garden,
or Plato and his followers in
the gardens of the Academy
in Athens (1834),
by the Hungarian artist
Maté Strohmayer.
each philosopher being responsible for his or
her own thinking rather than the inheritor of a
tradition or of a particular line of thought.
Socrates, as he emerges from the pages of
Plato's early Dialogues, epitomizes this approach
to philosophy, rejecting the teacher/pupil rela¬
tionship, teaching no pre-established doctrine
and simply verifying the solidity of his interlo¬
cutor's argument. Agreement between two
people reached in this way, if based on truth,
seems preferable to public approval based only
on probability.
This free-wheeling approach does not,
however, exclude a certain element of struc¬
tured teaching that is inseparable from the
notion that philosophy engenders truth. At the
end of his dialogue Phaedrus, Plato tells the
story of Thoth and Tammuz. The Egyptian
god Thoth, founder of the arts, is the inventor,
amongst other things, of writing. He takes his
inventions to Tammuz the king of the gods,
expecting to be congratulated on his work.
Tammuz does indeed praise him for some of
his inventions, but he rejects others. With
regard to writing, however, the king scolds him
roundly for having done the exact opposite of
what he had set out to do, namely to banish
forgetfulness. With writing, men would lose
their memory since they would rely on texts set
down in inanimate characters.
Socrates, who relates the story, sides with
reciting a discourse, but also of defending it and
explaining it in face of objections that the
Tammuz. A written text, he declares, is an
orphan, a fatherless speech with none to defend
it. You cannot ask it for further explanation as
you would a speaker and it is even more defence¬
written word cannot foresee. The listener is
thus in the position of a disciple, since the dis¬
course must not only propound the truth, it
must do so at the appropriate time and in the
right manner. Without the authority of a
less in that it has been placed in the hands of all
and sundry. "Once it has been committed to
paper, a discourse journeys as the wind blows
it, falling willy-nilly into the hands of those
who are knowledgeable in such matters and
Master there can therefore be no truth.
This concept gives us a key to the structure
of Plato's Dialogues. In the late Dialogues,
Socrates (or the Stranger from Athens who
replaces him) propounds a doctrine. He teaches
what is good, how pleasure relates to it, and how
to build an ideal city. In the earlier Dialogues,
rather than stating what is true, he lays down the
conditions under which the truth will emerge.Only when we are in agreement, he says, will we
be able to accept a thesis as being true.
those whom it does not concern at all. Further¬
more, it has no means of knowing to whom it
should or should not be addressed."
From soothsayer
The story only holds good in the light of a cer¬
tain vision of the truth, namely that the truth,
far from having a value in its own right, has no
substance unless upheld by the word of a
Thus Socrates, who neither writes nor
teaches, is seen as the Master of the truth, less
Master. Neither Tammuz nor Socrates claim
with regard to its content than with regard to
the conditions under which it emerges. In this
that written discourse was untrue. It may well
be true, but it is an erratic truth that requires
someone to guide it and to know to whom to
impart it and from whom it should be with¬
Saint Augustine with a group
held. That someone should also know how to
of monks and nuns.
impart it, since teaching is not just a matter of
12th-century manuscript.
he is the incarnation of a form of Greek
thought that existed even before the time of
Plato. As early as the Homeric age, the poet
played the role of propounder of the truth, as
did the soothsayer and the king. What they said
required no proof or supporting argument. As
the French
Hellenist Marcel Détienne has
pointed out, the mere fact of the positions they
held sufficed. Thought was thus the appurte¬
nance of certain men, who were themselves
bound to certain social functions, such as the
exercise of power or the administration of
sacred rites.
This structure later developed other forms
with the advent of philosophy as an indepen¬
dent discipline. The great innovation was that
serving the truth became the Master's sole
social function. The philosopher no longer
looked to the soothsayer or the poet as his gua¬
rantor of the truth, but rather to the scholarch,
or head of his particular school of philosophy.
To be a thinker one had to become an Aristote¬
lian, a Stoic, a Cynic or a Sceptic. Hellenistic
thought came to be characterized by its oppo¬
sing schools with their succession of heads, or
scholarchs, and their perpetual reference back
to the Founder, and this practice was later
passed on to the Romans.
This conception of the truth as inherent in
the teaching of a Master meant that the various
schools had a number of common characterist¬
ics personalization, harking back to the past,
orthodoxy even though their doctrines
diverged. The Master/Pupil relationship was a
replay of the Master/Disciple relationship at a
different level. The pupils of Epictetus, for
example, saw him as the embodiment of the
Stoic ideal. Each successive Master had tempo¬
rarily to take on the personality of the founder
of his school. Arguments had to be re-cast and
re-thought. One had to be immersed in philo¬
sophy before one could begin to philosophize.
Learning appeared to be the best route to dis¬
covery, and imitation seemed to be the surest
way to learn.
The inner teacher
Learning by imitation can be seen either as an
indication that the heirs of a great master are
not of the same stature as he, or as a laudable
form of respect for tradition and evidence that
a coherent line of thought does not necessarily
involve radically new individual thinking. It is a
method that is encountered at other periods in
the history of Western thought
in the com¬
mentaries of the Schoolmen, for example, or in
the Cartesian, Kantian and Hegelian schools,
which perpetuated a system and spread it
through the universities.
Can the religions based on revealed scrip¬
ture be said to have rejected this system? At
times they appear to have revived and perpe¬
tuated it, but, above all, and this is fundamental,
they interiorized it.
What a human Master teaches us may well
be true, said St. Augustine, but such truth
cannot enter us unless it is already awaited by
an existing inner truth
the presence of God in
our innermost being. This refusal to be subject
to another's teaching leads to the discovery of a
wiser and more convincing Master. "When the
Masters have explained in words all those
branches of knowledge that they claim to teach,
including even virtue and wisdom, those whom
we call disciples examine their innermost selves
to see if what they say is true by reference to
this inner truth." (St. Augustine, De Magistró).
It is at this point that the disciples' learning
process begins, and the praises they lavish on
The Death of Socrates, by
the Danish artist Christoffer-
Wilhelm Eckersberg (17831853).
their human, external Masters are addressed
also to the Master within themselves. This
marks the introduction of another way of prac¬
tising philosophy, by means of meditation or
confession. Instead of turning his thoughts
towards his predecessor, the philosopher looks
into the secrets of his soul. A major part of this
approach consists of stripping away the in¬
essential and examining the innermost "soul of
souls", where the hidden regulator of the philo¬
sopher's thoughts and actions is situated. That
is where the Master lives, his power enhanced
by this favoured location.
Truth without strings
Is it possible to arrive at the truth without fol¬
lowing the instructions of a Master? or without
setting oneself up as a Master? This is what the
philosophies of the seventeenth century set out
to do, as is shown notably by the case of the
Dutch philosopher Spinoza.
The trouble Spinoza took to remove his
as Master
What else is there, then, which can replace the
Master and enable us to do without him? The
laws of mathematics. The full title of Spinoza's
greatest work, usually referred to as Ethica, is
Ethica in
Ordine Geométrico Demonstrata.
("Ethics Expounded in Accordance with the
Rules of Geometry"), a clear indication of the
author's intentions. The work is presented in
the form of a series of axioms, theorems and
demonstrations, but, more deeply than this, it
attempts to make use of the analytical approach
of geometry in establishing basic definitions.
The objection might be raised that this,
mathematical model is also a kind of Master,
but the model has no control of the conclusions
to which it leads. It provides a powerful tool
(demonstration), but this tool is available to
anyone who wishes to make use of it. There is
an objective, impersonal aspect to mathematical
reasoning which is far removed from the per¬
sonal, dual relationship that exists between
Master and pupil. There are indeed teachers of
mathematics, but they make no distinction bet¬
ween the esoteric and the exoteric
Baruch de Spinoza
(1632-1677) Dutch
17th-century engraving by an
unknown artist.
name from any of his works is very revealing in
itself. There may well have been a degree of
wise caution in this. Knowing that his teaching
was in contradiction with the doctrines of the
Churches of his day, Spinoza did not want to
draw attention and persecution upon himself.
His major work published during his lifetime,
the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, did not
bear the author's name and the name of the
publisher and the place of publication were fic¬
titious, so as to cover his tracks.
Yet there was more to all this than mere
caution, since even his posthumous works were
published anonymously (they bore only his
initials). Furthermore, as we learn from his cor¬
respondence, Spinoza never hesitated to make
his convictions known or to defend his opi¬
nions vigorously.
For Spinoza, anonymity was a necessary
adjunct of his philosophical theory. He saw a
desire for fame as a sublimation of intellectual
is a French professor of
philosophy and the author of
a number of books including
Spinoza, Éditions du Seuil,
Paris, 1975, and Le Récit
Utopique ("Visions of
Utopia"), PUF, Paris, 1982.
His latest book L'Expérience
et l'éternité ("Experience and
eternity") is to be published
shortly by Éditions du Seuil,
passion. In his Ethica, quoting from Cicero, he
inveighs against those who write treatises
decrying the thirst for glory, yet never fail to
sign their own writings. But what for the
Roman orator and philosopher was no more
than a brief piece of moral sermonizing was
inserted by Spinoza into an analysis of the blind¬
ing effects of the emotions. So long as man is
possessed by desire, he is driven by concern for
his own image, a concern which is strengthened
by all the other passions. Desire being the
essence of the individual, the thought process,
whether we are examining its roots or a specific
example of thought, is inevitably an expression
of this emotion. One might say that only emo¬
tion is individual and that therefore only emo¬
tion can assume the mantle of the Master.
what the
pupil understands is determined solely by his
or her ability and level of advancement. In this
sense, mathematics occupies precisely the same
position as that ascribed to writing in Plato's
Phaedrus. It may seem surprising to find the
mathematical model being placed in opposition
to the Platonic approach. After all, the Academy
in Athens that Plato founded was the recog¬
nized authority on mathematics. However,
although Spinoza and Plato agreed about the
importance of mathematics, they differed pro¬
foundly on the relationship between mathema¬
tics and philosophy. What appealed to Spinoza
in the mathematical model was the opportunity
it offered to describe causes quite indepen¬
dently of any possible end effects.
The anonymity on which Spinoza insisted
became another established practice among
philosophers. It was adopted by the Free¬
thinkers of the Enlightenment, a period during
which anonymous philosophy developed into
clandestine philosophy, with the circulation of
texts, theses, and collections of writings of un¬
known authorship. Manuscripts published
during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
had perforce to be anonymous if their authors
were to avoid censorship or imprisonment. But
apart from these considerations, these anony¬
mous publications were a further blow to the
old concept of magisterial authority. The
author of a clandestine publication had no idea
who would read it, through what channels it
would circulate, who would take up an idea
and insert it in a new piece of writing, or who
would give a different slant to its conclusions.
Paradoxically, these writings were "clandes¬
tine" precisely because they were open to all.
Multiplication of the means of access to and
diffusion of the truth excludes the relationship
between two individuals
and Disciple.
that between Master
Simón Rodríguez,
portrait by an unknown
artist (c. 1828).
Simón Rodríguez, champion ofmass education
by Jorge López Palma
TUTOR of Simón Bolívar, the Liberator,
and written off by his critics as an eccen¬
María España against the Spanish authorities,
tric, Simón Rodríguez is considered by
many as the pioneer of mass education in Latin
After first taking refuge in Philadelphia, he
America. He was born in Caracas, Venezuela,
in 1771, and as a young man he came into
in France, until 1822, when he returned to
contact with the educational ideas of Rousseau
and of other luminaries of the Enlightenment.
He died at Amotape, Peru, in 1854.
Following the abortive insurrection by the
Venezuelan patriots Manuel Gual and José
Rodriguez was obliged to leave the country.
went to Europe in 1801, where he lived, mainly
South America. During his travels he enriched
his knowledge in a variety of fields, studying
topography and observing and noting down
everything he saw, learning languages and
translating French literary works before dis¬
covering his vocation as an educationist.
employed by the school. The Plan envisaged
the creation of workshop/schools in each of the
departments of the Bolivian Republic, but the
Eifot school at Chuquisaca was the only one to
ecome operative and it functioned only for a
short period.
Bogotá and Chuquisaca were thus the only
attempts at creating "social schools" personally
undertaken by Rodriguez.
An educational visionary
After Bolivar's fall from power, Simón Rodri¬
guez devoted himself to his work as an educa¬
tional theorist, publishing a series of works
including Sociedades Americanas en 1828.
Cómo serán y cómo podrían ser en los siglos
venideros (1828, "American societies in 1828;
their probable evolution and future pros¬
pects"); El Libertador del mediodía de America
y sus compañeros de armas defendidos po'r un
amigo de la causa social (1830, "A defence of
the Liberator of South America and his com¬
Simón Bolívar in 1802.
Spanish miniature.
elements of a trade. This initiative and the
rades-in-arms by an upholder of the social
cause"), Luces y virtudes sociales (1840,
"Enlightenment and social values") and
Consejos de amigo, dados al Colegio de Lacatunga (1845, "Friendly advice addressed to the
College of Lacatunga").
In 1845, Rodriguez drew up a set of regula¬
tions for the primary school of the College of
Saint Vincent de Lacatunga, in Ecuador.
Among other recommendations in this innova¬
desire to extend the benefits of education to
tive text, Rodriguez proposed mixed classes,
sections of society traditionally excluded from
with Whites and Indians being taught side by
side, and a bilingual education, the dead lan¬
guages being replaced by Quechua. Twenty
Shortly after his return to America, in 1823,
he attempted, with the aid of Bolivar, to set up
a model school in Bogotá. Called the Casa de
Industria Pública, It was intended for poor
orphaned, or illegitimate children, who were to
be taught the basic elements of writing,
grammar and arithmetic, as well as the basic
it roused the opposition of the conservative
upper classes of Bogotá. It was not until the
end of the nineteenth century that Jean Bosco
succeeded in putting this Rousseau-inspired
idea into practice.
Despite this setback, Rodriguez was not
years after his setback at Chuquisaca, Rodri¬
guez was well aware that Latin-American
governments were not at all interested in edu¬
discouraged and, in 1825, he attempted a
similar experiment at Chuquisaca (now Sucre)
up within the College of a number of work¬
in Bolivia.
This involved a Plan for Mass Education
also made a recommendation to the Ecuadorian
Congress that a special tax should be imposed
take tne same tasks as the boys. In addition to
this theoretical and practical craft training, all
the pupils were given moral, civic and religious
instruction by specialist teachers.
Another important innovation was that the
workshop/school offered employment to those
parents of pupils who were capable of work; to
those unable to work payments were made
from the funds accumulated from the work
essayist and sociologist, ¡s a
carried out by their children. Initially the
capital required had to be provided by the
government, but it was intended that, thanks to
the work carried out by the pupils, the school
would eventually become financially selfsupporting. When the school was running on a
permanent basis, the pupils would not nor¬
mally be boarders, but those who wanted to
could stay overnight, as could those parents
research at the Social
Science Faculty of the
University of the East,
Venezuela. His published
work includes: Simón
Rodríguez; utopía y
socialismo ("Simón
Rodríguez; socialism and
shops, including a smithy and pottery, glass¬
ware, masonry and carpentry workshops. He
based on mixed schooling for boys and girls,
who were both housed and fed. The boys were
trained as masons, carpenters and blacksmiths,
since, according to Rodriguez, stone, wood and
metals were the basic components of all the
most indispensable objects. The girls received
training "suited to their sex", but with the
innovative proviso that, to the extent that they
were physically capable of it, they could under¬
professor and director of
cation for the masses, so he advised the setting
to finance the creation of schools and to pay
teachers' salaries. The regulations drawn up by
Rodriguez for the College of Lacatunga were
still in force at the end of the World War II.
Simón Rodríguez always saw education as a
means of achieving lasting social change in the
youthful Latin-American republics. In his
view, it was essential to turn out culturallytransformed men and women, if their recently
acquired independence and political emancipa¬
tion were to be consolidated. He had learned
from the great thinkers of the Enlightenment
that education was the key to cultural transfor¬
mation and renewal.
In view of the economic difficulties faced
by Latin-American countries of the time,
Rodriguez' "social schools" were a Utopian
vision. Those elements of society that should
have supported him clearly lacked the material
means to do so. This is why the name of Simón
Rodríguez has not gone down in history
alongside those of other great educational
reformers such as Saint-Simon, Owen and
Fourier. Nevertheless, many of his ideas retain
their freshness and originality and remain
astonishingly relevant even today.
Who benefits from
by France Bequette
Francesco di Castri
30 Voices from the past
Learningbreeds respectfor nature
by France Bequette
~"1 ducation is the only way to achieve true respectfor the environil ment. How many of us have unthinkingly poured some toxic
J matter down the drain or thrown it away with the garbage
I without the slightest awareness of the possible consequences?
¡Now that the alarm bells are ringing the effects of actions of
. -A this kind can no longer be ignored. There must, however, be
easy accessfor all to clear, specific information adapted to tlie economic
level and the culture of peoples throughout the world. Obviously,
the message, cannot be the same everywhere. The average American
generates about 3 kilogrammes of waste every day, and dumping
grounds in the United States are full to bursting. The very least that
must be done is to learn to sort wastefor recycling. In Haiti, people do
not throw anything away. Soda-bottle caps are shaped into spoons,
orange peel is dried and used to spice a famous liqueur, paper is
used in schools to make up for the scarcity of cloth when teaching
young girls how to sew. We are hardly in a position to tell these
Haitian champions ofrecycling that they should not cut down thefew
remaining trees on their eroded hills to cook their meals.
Even if we know what ought or ought not to be done, there is a
huge gap between knowledge and behaviour. It is not enough simply
to inform. As Ramón Folch, President of the Spanish Man and the
Biosphere (MAB) Committee put it: "It is more important to educate
than to inform. Knowledge alone educates no one; education also has
to include moral values. "A new form of ethics is being born, which
encourages humankind to live in harmony with nature. Primary
and secondary school teachers have excellent educational tools at their
disposal. Documents produced by the UNESCO-UNEP International
Programmefor Environmental Education arefull ofpractical exer¬
cises that pupils will love doing. Ifyou would like to keep up to date
with what is happening in Environmental Education write to:
UNESCO/UNEP Newsletter on Environmental Education
7, Place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris, France
The waterfall
The city of Bangkok pumps up
more than a million cubic metres of
water per day from several under¬
ground sources of water. This pump¬
ing rate depletes the groundwater
reserves faster than they can recu¬
perate naturally. The city is now
facing a double threat
its sole
water reserve is being contaminated
by salt water, and its land area is
steadily sinking
as much as 10
centimetres per year. This is espe¬
cially alarming because Bangkok is
located almost at sea level and is
highly populated (about 6 million
A remarkable brochure, written
use solar energy, and so on. This
for children, called Help to Save the
160-page brochure is valuable
World, has been published by the
because it can be referred to daily by
In Costa Rica, the National Biodiversity Institute
World Scout Movement and the
children both in the North and in
hires village dwellers and pays them as para-taxono-
mists, that is, assistant medicinal-plant classifiers. They
the South. For information, write
(WWF). It contains hundreds of
to the World Scout Bureau, BP 241 ,
accompany researchers into the forest and show them
practical examples illustrated by a
what samples to harvest. Ethnobotanists on the spot
series of drawings including: how
contact the World Wide Fund for
interview traditional practitioners on how they use the
not to waste drinking water, how to
Nature, Avenue du Mont Blanc, CH
plants they harvest and dry. Chemists then attempt to
feed wild birds, how to cook food
1 196 Gland, Switzerland.
isolate and extract the active principle and consult with
with as little fuel as possible, how to
pharmacologists as to the possible medicinal value of
the plants. An active component against a number of
viruses, including those causing herpes and influenza,
has already been isolated. The first clinical tests are
encouraging. A large chemical company has already
paid Costa Rica US$1 million to help in the conserva¬
tion of its forests. If the medicine is marketed, part of the
profits will go to the protection of tropical forests.
Mussels have been put under close watch. Under the
auspices of the Intergovernmental Océanographie
Commission (IOC), the United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP) and the US National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), an international
mussel watch has been launched. Just as, in the past,
canaries taken down inside mines revealed the presence
of toxic gas, mussels today serve as pollution "indicators".
Any over-use on the land of fertilizers, pesticides or other
potentially toxic substance by careless farmers can
immediately be detected in the mussel samples that are
now regularly examined by specialists.
In Kinabulu, in the Sabah region
of East Malaysia, a programme is
being developed to raise mouse
deer {Tragulus javanicus) to feed
village dwellers. Although theore¬
tically a protected species, these
tiny deer, about the size of a house
cat, are still being hunted down
because the delicious deer-meat is
believed to have medicinal value.
In addition, the selling price for each
little creature is the equivalent of
the average weekly wage. Since the
species breeds quite well in capti¬
vity, it was decided to encourage its
farming. The relatively undemand¬
ing mouse deer feeds on bean
After the Clean Air Act, the United
ground when it rains or snows
stems, wilted vegetables or fruit.
Cages and enclosures can be built
States can now show off its Clean
the surface water, then the water
Water Act, according to Robert
table are contaminated. Cities are
Griffin Jr., a science writer speciali¬
The fish are returning to the
not the only culprits. Agriculture
adds its share of fertilizers and pesti¬
cides. And according to the United
streams. Swimming and water
sports are once again allowed in
States Environmental Protection
Brochures written in the local lang¬
uage are distributed to potential
breeders. To combat poaching,
births are registered and the ani¬
mals are tattooed. There is only one
obligation every breeder receives
Agency (USEPA), the list of non-
three deer and must, in turn, within
rivers, lakes and certain beaches
point source polluters includes:
where they had been forbidden
because of pollution. But pollution
three years, provide four deer for
new candidates participating in the
programme. Not only does this ope¬
carpark. Oil, mineral salts and toxic
abandoned mines, the building
trade, forestry and septic tanks. The
battle against non-point source pol¬
lution will be neither easy nor inex¬
pensive, but it has begun. Its first
objective will be to clean up the
substances of all sorts sink into the
zing in health and environment.
has taken on a treacherous form
called "non-point source" pollu¬
tion. Take, for instance, a street or a
In January 1991, during the Gulf War, some six to
eight million barrels of oil were poured into the
waters of the Persian Gulf. The ensuing oil slick, the
largest ever recorded, was cause for much concern.
What would become of the maritime fauna and flora?
To find out, the Mt Mitchell was fitted out and sent to
the Gulf by the US National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which also co¬
ordinated an expedition set up in association with
the Regional Organization for the Preservation of the
Marine Environment (ROPME) and UNESCO's
Intergovernmental Océanographie Commission
(IOC). Divers have already made over one hundred
dives in four coral-reef zones off the shores of Qatar,
Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. At first sight, the hydrocar¬
bons do not appear to have caused any damage.
Nonetheless, the Mt Mitchell took to the sea again
last May for a period of 100 days, in order to compare
the winter and the summer situations. Next year, the
research team will analyse the samples collected and
will make its findings known in January 1993 during a
symposium in Dubai (United Arab Emirates) .
ration protect the wildlife, it also
provides extra income for the
women who farm the land and are
traditionally responsible for animal
by France Bequette
Large international financial
back these loans plus the interest
means that there is little opportu¬
nity for studying their possible
environmental impact. It is easy
enough to maintain that things
will be "put right" later. Ideally,
these projects should be jointly
discussed by environmental spe¬
on them. In 1990, Third World
cialists, economists and bankers.
However, it is difficult to bridge
the gap between the ideal situa¬
tion and the need to meet daily
survival requirements.
There are many reasons why
agents are not necessarily
philanthropists. The less
developed countries who
turn to them for loans in an
effort to survive, have to pay
US$1,355 billion. How do these
countries manage to meet debtrepayment instalments? By get¬
ting the most out of their natural
resources through logging, min¬
ing, oil extraction and ranching,
because only massive exports can
provide them with the hard cur¬
rency they need. The trouble is,
the resources are not exploited
rationally. Furthermore, what little
capital is available for investment
tends to be put into projects yield¬
ing short-term returns, which
For some countries, debt-for-nature
exchanges are a way of alleviating
their external debt burden and pro¬
tecting their "natural capital". But
this complex mechanism is still in its
initial stages.
these countries have to borrow.
There may be a decline in the
price of their raw materials (cof¬
fee, for instance). Their exports
may be hampered by protectio¬
nist policies among the importing
nations. They may lack adequate
scientific and technological sup¬
port. In addition, funds are some¬
times diverted from their original
purpose. Fresh money can be
used to buy weapons or even for
personal enrichment. In order to
speed up debt repayment, the
World Bank and the International
In 1987, a new form of debt
Monetary Fund advise govern¬
ments to implement reforms,
including austerity measures, cut¬
the debt-for-nature
exchange. In the first issue of
Environment Brief published by
backs in civil service staff and
Unesco in 1992 (1), debt-for-nature
action to eradicate corruption.
But however well-grounded the
reforms may be economically,
they are often resented by the
population. However, these two
agencies do not have exclusive
responsibility for Third World
debt management. Altogether
exchange is defined as follows:
"... the foreign-currency debt holder
negotiates a deal whereby the
debtor redeems the debt through
some 500 banks are involved.
Moreover, a flourishing, unpublicized secondary market in Third
World debt has emerged.
The process is something like
this: Bank X lends US$1 million to
von Droste in MAB Digest (2),
published by Unesco in 1990,
Country Y on the basis of its
potential wealth or its expected
economic recovery. For various
reasons, Bank X may later decide
clearly shows the practical pro¬
blems involved in implementing
such an agreement.
In July 1987, an American envi¬
to sell the debt to Bank Z for
ronmental Non-Governmental
US$600,000. If Country Y finally
pulls through and meets its obli¬
gations, Bank Z will have made a
profit of US$400,000, because the
debt has kept its initial nominal
Organization, Conservation Inter¬
national, decided to purchase
value. When a bank decides to
invest in a particular country, this
is part of a strategy and purcha¬
sing a debt gives it the power to
a commitment either to invest
local currency in conservation and
natural resource management
projects or to encourage sustain¬
changes in policy and regulation."
The following example, as repor¬
ted by Peter Dogsé and Bernd
US$650,000 worth of Bolivia's
external debt, for which it paid
US$100,000. In exchange, the
Bolivian government agreed to
classify as a "biosphere reserve",
1.5 million hectares of tropical
rain forest located in the Bolivian
influence entire sectors of the
region of Beni, the capital of
local economy.
which is Trinidad. It also decided
Left, La Amistad Biosphere Reserve,
Costa Rica.
Opposite page, blue-footed booby from
the Galápagos Islands (also a Biosphere
Reserve), Ecuador.
Both Reserves are involved in debt-for-
nature exchanges.
- *t
to set up three buffer zones
around the reserve.
The project has had to face a
number of problems. Bolivia has no
Non-Governmental Organization
specializing in environmental
waterways in this huge, under¬
populated area are not always
experts argue that in most cases
this arrangement does not result
Of course, there are benefits.
vation measures that preserve
appearances, and that no indepth, concrete action actually
takes place.
Staff have been recruited and
trained in forestry, inventories
in much more than a few conser¬
matters and this has slowed down
have been initiated, an environ¬
implementation of the project
considerably. Furthermore, three
indigenous groups have asserted
mental education programme has
Nevertheless, since the Global
been launched, and Conservation
Environment Facility (GEF) was
set up by the World Bank and the
their claims on the reserve in
invest in research programmes on
soils, primates and freshwater
which about 25,000 of them live.
In 1990, they marched on La Paz
in a forty-day protest. In view of
all this, the Bolivian government
postponed its financial contribu¬
tion for two years. Since the United
States Agency for International
Development (USAID) waits for
local official funding before it
makes its own donation, this
Government immediately lost
US$60,000 in interest. In the
authorized loggers to exploit the
mahogany trees in Chimane, one
of the buffer forests, on condition
that they carried out a reafforesta¬
tion programme a requirement
they were not always able to fulfil.
Other problems include the fact
that the only road to Trinidad is
impassable during the greater
part of the year, and that the
turtles. This demonstrates the
multiplier effect that debt-fornature exchanges can have. For
every dollar a Non-Governmental
Organization invests, it will gen¬
erally add two more to carry out
complementary projects and, of
course, to enhance its own image.
United Nations
Programme (UNEP), with initial
funding of US$1.4 billion, the
most heavily indebted countries
appear to see this initiative as
opening up' new prospects both
for alleviating their burden of
debt and for safeguarding their
"natural capital".
Some tentative conclusions can
be drawn at this stage. Regardless
of the generous motives behind
such nature conservation under¬
takings, they are often subject to
criticism. Is this not just a new
form of domination?
Are the ter¬
(1) Exchanging Debt for Nature, in
Environment BriefNo.l, Unesco 1992
(2) Debt-for-Nature Exchanges and
Biosphere Reserves, by Peter Dogsé and
Bernd von Droste, MAB Digest No.6, Unesco
ritorial restrictions imposed on
the indigenous populations justi¬
fied, when in fact the debt is none
of their making? Will the benefi¬
ciary nation honour its commit¬
ments, when it has not complied
with its previous external debt
payments to banks? Finally, some
FRANCE BEQUETTE, a Franco-American journalist specia-
lizingin environmental questions, hasbeen involved since
1985 in the WANAD-Unesco training programmeforAfrican
by Serafín García
Thefinal instalment of
an interview with the co-ordinator
of Unesco's environment
Thanks to progress in medicine and
hygiene, life expectancy luis increased
considerably in the past century.
Ecologically speaking, is there a
critical tolerance threshold for the
"We may know
human species on our planet?
how a particular
organism reacts
World population has grown to
over five billion inhabitants. In the
in a laboratory
next twenty or thirty years, it might
grow to around double that figure,
that is, eight to nine billion or eleven
to twelve billion, according to
experiment, but
we don't know
how it will
behave once it is
various estimates that have been
let loose in
made. The demographic problem is
a crucial and thorny one; in fact,
many countries prefer to avoid dis¬
cussing it. It will not be solved by a
mere expansion of financial
resources; a range of cultural fac¬
tors and development policies will
nature." Left,
Cultivation of
engineered cells
in a laboratory in
also have to be taken into account.
Education and widespread birth
control are clearly essential ingredients
oftlie solution. But is there notadanger
that many peoples might find this
offensive to their sensitivities and
It would be simplistic to main¬
tain that all countries ought to adopt
the same demographic policy. A
demographic policy needs to res¬
pect the individual, as well as differ¬
standpoint of how many people we
can feed, the answer is that with all
the progress that has been accom¬
plished in farming and biotechno¬
tion programmes. However, one
logy, we might have the technical
means to feed up to fifteen billion
people. But this would entail chan¬
way or another, we will have to stem
the tide of population growth.
ging the world into a huge, monoto¬
nous, industrialized, urban expanse,
its population as has already hap¬
pened with certain male steriliza¬
How can this be achieved? Birth
standardizing all food and becoming
more vulnerable than ever to social
ences in the cultural context. In
but it will have to be subtly adjusted
and geopolitical upheavals.
Europe, for instance, the popula¬
tion is aging too much. If the
countryside loses its farmlands, the
to take account of cultural differ¬
But if we care about the quality of
ences. We cannot advocate a single
life, if we consider that a human
growth model, a single environ¬
being should have a minimum
environment in this continent will
mental conservation model and a
amount of time and space available
single demographic model. The
vision must be global, but it must
to him or her in order to enjoy an
hand, in some countries of the Third
World, population is growing at a
spectacularly fast pace. If the coun¬
tries there do not act quickly and
vigorously to bring it under strict
control, whilst respecting their
peoples' culture, religion and life¬
style, we shall be heading for
disaster, with successive waves of
is a journalist with
migration occurring both in the
Umesco's Office of
South and in the North.
Public Information.
of the question. Nor do we want to
see the government of a country
applying draconian policies that
might arouse violent reactions from
control will certainly be necessary,
deteriorate further. On the other
Imposing a demographic-control
handbook on the entire world is out
also take the specific realities of
existence worthy of the name, then
it can be said that we have already
Nevertheless, education and devel¬
threshold. To put a figure on it, let us
opment must form the basis of any
say that ten billion is the limit it
solution to the population problem.
would be better not to exceed.
Can you put a figure on the demo¬
Is mastery of biotechnology, and its
graphic threshold that should not be
proper application, the key to the pre¬
servation ofa livable environment?
It all depends on your point of
view. From a strictly functional
rise to great, sometimes excessive
Biotechnologies have given
hope, but also to a lot of fears. As I
a crisis of institutions, both national
and international. For over a cen¬
gishness that is due to a sectoral
approach, divergence of interests
founded. We may know how a par¬
and the barriers of tradition.
ticular organism reacts in a labora¬
system, trades as a whole, have all
been based on a sectoral approach,
on the compartmentalization of
What solution do you suggest?
tory experiment, but we don't know
how it will behave once it is let loose
tion among the various disciplines?
It is of course indispensable to know
each field of activity in depth, but
problems of the environment and of
development will never be solved
by a single discipline.
That's easy to say, I know, and
infinitely hard to put into practice.
Why? Because most institutions are
still behaving as they did fifty years
ago. Competition is still rife bet¬
lation seems indispensable to me.
Take tomatoes, for instance. How
was a remedy found for the parasitic
infestation that affected them?
Instead of being treated with pesti¬
cides, they were cross-bred with
Unfortunately, there is no
simple answer. First, the university
system, based as it is on sectoral
separation, would have to be modi¬
fied, so as to inculcate in every
one field to a systematic interac¬
be taken. Accordingly, ad hoclegis-
knowledge and activities. How can
we go from this specific interest in
in nature and begins to interact with
other existing organisms. Whilst not
neglecting the benefits, we have to
guard against possible harm. To
avoid the risk of potential devia¬
tion, all kinds of precautions must
some wild
researcher the desire to work with
researchers in other disciplines.
Given that it is impossible to have
generalists capable of solving all the
problems, why not have specialists
who, besides having one main dis¬
ciplinary root, would also have
lateral roots, just as plants have cen¬
tral tap-roots and lateral roots that
intertwine with the roots of other
ween ministries, as well as between
South America. This resulted in
plants for mutual cross-fertilization?
In this way, competition would be
replaced by tolerance and reciprocal
exchange, both of which at present
are practically non-existent.
different sectors of international
some productive, resistant varie¬
institutions. Every time an attempt
ties that lost nothing in taste and
is made to break down institutional
quality. On the other hand, you can
also get stocks that deteriorate the
environment by becoming invasive.
We have to be careful not to play
the role of sorcerer's apprentice.
or disciplinary barriers whether
national or international, govern¬
On close examination it becomes
mental or non-governmental in¬
clear that environmental deterio¬
stitutions are involved
ration is setting in because more
and more knowledge is being
acquired in isolation rather than
being integrated into a compre¬
hensive approach. We are walking
backwards. There will be no pro¬
gress without mutual interdiscipli¬
nary exchange.
has grown to over
it runs into
outdated forms of obstruction. This
seems to be particularly true in
Tlte environment is an international and
interdisciplinary area par excellence.
areas where only political synergy
could make progress possible. The
Has itfinally been recognized as such ?
United Nations institutions, des¬
Let's be frank: the environment
pite the efforts accomplished in this
area, are not exempt from the slug
and development crisis is above all
"World population
five billion
inhabitants. In the
next twenty or
thirty years it
might grow to
around double
that figure."
» 1» ml^mLj^^^^^Ê^±l « ^^^^^A
^^^^^^L± m^M L
1^1 ¿at at III MÍLjMMit.£i^
». .
J ,km.
*Ji'i»< rji 11 'Mil Uli M*!'* til
* '
< . ¿i'jÉfcjik.4 A. a t.» itiifiita» .ii *
>tf| ....
i.. ii,,., ,.,,,,,
' -
- - -^
:á ¡H
'2 *5P
A .
: «k Ä.
X .
* -
. i
* .
' : '
. . ''
' .
Voices from the past
uE 11
One of the three great Chinese Taoist philosophers i, Lieh-tzu (or Liezi) was the author of Ch'ungHsii Chih
Te Chen Ching, which can be translated as the "Pure Classic of the Perfect Virtue of Simplicity and
Emptiness". This collection of Taoist anecdotes, divided into eight books, was composed around the year
AD 300. The extract reproduced here comes from the Second Book.
Introducing a volume of classic Taoist texts, the French writer Etiemble observed: "Perhaps we might find here
an aspect of Taoism that could inspire us to address the greatest problem threatening our species: the death of
the seas, the earth, the air. To all those who play around with viruses, climates, marine currents, genetics, tera¬
tology, the Taoists cry 'Lunatics! Madmen! Destroyers!' Without knowing it, they were the first ecologists."2
Confucius was looking at Lü-
liang waterfall. The water
'beginning in what is native to
dropped two hundred feet,
you, growing up in what is
streamingfoam for thirty miles;
natural to you, maturing by
it was a place wherefish and
trusting destiny'?"
turtles and crocodiles could not
"Having been born on land I
swim, hut he saw a man
am safe on land
swimming there. Taking him for
to me. Ido it without knowing
someone in trouble who wanted
how I do itthis is trusting
to die, he sent a disciple along
"What do you mean by
this is natural
the bank to pull him up. But
The Book of Lieh-Tzu,
Translated by A. C. Graham
after swimming a few hundred
©A.C. Graham, I960
yards the man came out, and
strolled along singing under the
l.The two others are Lao-tzu and Chuang-
bank with his hair hanging
2. Philosophes taoïstes, Lao- tseu, Tchouangtseu, Lie-tseu. With aforeword, preface and
bibliography by Etiemble. Texts translated
and annotated by Liou Kia-Hway and
down his back. Confucius
proceeded to question him:
"I thought you were a ghost,
Demiéville, Etiemble and Max Kaltenmark.
Bibliothèque de la Pléiade, Unesco and
but now I can look you over I see
Gallimard, Paris, 1980.
you are human. May I ask
This passage from The BookofLieh-tzuappeais
whether you have a Way to
tread in water?"
m an anthology entitled Compagnons du Soleil
("Companions of the Sun") which is to be co-
published (in French) by Unesco, Editions de
la Découverte (Paris) and the Fondation pour
"No, I have no Way. I began in
le progrès de l'Homme. The anthology has
been prepared under the general editorship of
what is native to me, grew up in
the African historian Joseph Ki-Zerbo, in col¬
laboration with Marie-Josèphe Beaud. The
what is natural to me, matured
idea for the anthology came from the Vézelay
by trusting destiny. I enter the
eight members, including Joseph Ki-Zerbo
vortex with the inflow and leave
Group, an international panel consisting of
(see the Unesco Courier, June 1992, p. 30).
with the outflow, follow the Way
of the water instead of imposing
a course ofmy own; this is how I
Left, A fishing village,
by Nang'chen, detail
from an 11th-century
tread it."
Chinese scroll painting.
by Rachid Sabbaghi
|ETWEEN 1950 and 1980, for several thou¬
of intellectuals, artists, writers and
'political militants, from both the indus¬
trialized countries of the North and the develo¬
ping countries of the South, Sartre was a defini¬
tive point of reference and an intellectual
master. Today, however, painstaking denial of
this fact has become de rigueur. Under pretext
of seeking emancipation from the suffocating
embrace of a "master thinker", great exertions
are being made to bury this master of truth,
this pathfinder, beneath a heavy layer of noisy
rejection or reproachful silence. Some even go
so far as to declare that Sartre was seriously
mistaken on all the essentials.
But can the universal appeal of Sartre's
work be dismissed as no more than the result
of some hypothetical contagion of error or
blind mimesis, or by putting it down to what is
vaguely described as the "troubled times" of
the last three or four decades? Were all the
hundreds of thousands of readers
men and
women, French, Egyptian, English, Japanese,
Senegalese, Indian, Russian, or whatever who
were touched and made to think by the work
of Sartre, simply wrong?
The question remains, insistent and unavoid¬
First of all there was the range and diversity
of the literary work. Sartre covered the entire
range of literature except poetry, producing
novels, short stories, plays, literary and artistic
criticism, essays, biography and autobiography.
For many thousands of writers, in the Third
ethical concerns. Among contemporary philo¬
sophers, it was Sartre who gave the noblest
expression to the intellectual's role and presence
in the human community. Over and above what
are now termed his "errors", it was principally
his obstinate and unfailing dedication to the
question of the ethics of intellectual activities,
linked to an overwhelming passion for liberty
and served by a veritable literary genius, that
won Sartre his place as a "master of truth".
His experience of the Second World War
transformed Sartre from a bourgeois, apolitical
writer into a freedom-fighter. On his return
from captivity in 1941, he organized with some
World as in the West, he was a master and a
friends a resistance network known as "Social¬
model in each of these fields.
ism and Liberty". But the communists rejected
his approaches, and the group, which was com¬
posed of isolated and inexperienced intellec¬
tuals, was soon reduced to impotence. To avoid
pointless repression, Sartre dissolved the net¬
work and in 1943 rejoined the National Writers'
able: what was it in Sartre's work that could
rouse such enthusiasm? How was it that his
thought could stir such vast aspirations across
the world?
Then there was his innovative up-dating of
French philosophy, which was engaged at the
time in interminable scrutiny of its divorce
from "real life". Sartre, in the words of the
philosopher Gilles Deleuze, took philosophy
out of its dusty retreat and exposed it to the
storms of the age, via politics, the arts, the
Third World, the cinema and revolution.
Finally there were Sartre's own intractable
Jean-Paul Sartre at his desk,
in 1966.
He took part in the meetings presided over
by Paul Eluard, and contributed to the under¬
ground journal Les Lettres Nouvelles. This
experience provided the theme for his trilogy of
novels, Les Chemins de la Liberté (1945-49).
The protagonist, a Sartre-like figure in quest of
authentic liberty, makes many false starts
before his encounter with history in its tragic
aspect in the form of war, defeat and humilia¬
tion. The trilogy is also a presentation in fic¬
tional form of the first philosophy of Sartre,
that of L'Etre et le Néant, which appeared in
1943 and heralds subsequent development of
that philosophy. L'Etre et le Néant can truly be
called the foundation-stone of a modern philo¬
sophy of consciousness.
There was a wide gap between Sartre's phi¬
losophy of consciousness and his ultimate
engagement in the great political struggles of
his time. Yet one fundamental element of conti¬
nuity was his concern for individual liberty, the
quality that made his thought a rallying-point
worldwide. How did he reach such a wide
audience? Certainly Sartre's novels and plays
helped make his thinking accessible to people
who were not themselves philosophers. But
division of the world into two blocs, the Cold
War and the rise of the protest movement in
the West, the coming of independence in the
Third World
this historical situation, inten¬
sely experienced by Sartre between 1945 and
1960, drove him to confront his own thinking
with that of Marxism, which he called "the
unpassable horizon of our times".
This new stage was marked by the appear¬
ance of a fresh philosophical work, La Cri¬
tique de la raison dialectique (1960). In it Sartre
tried to understand how the multiplication of
individual consciousness, taken in their inter¬
relationship, constructed "history". The purest
group for him was the fused group. As an
example he cited the storming of the Bastille by
the insurrectionists of 1789: "It was necessary
to fight, to save Paris, to take arms wherever
they lay..." The Bastille became the group's
common interest. What constituted a group,
for Sartre, was to feel individual need in
one can also look to the situation of the world
common. It was no longer a question, as in
at the time, barely emerged from Fascist bar¬
barism, still bogged down in colonial contra¬
dictions and heading towards a Cold War that
L'Etre et le Néant, of transcending or letting
threatened to be terrible.
In such circumstances, a tragic philosophy
of liberty could not fail to coincide with the
widespread aspiration for a .salvation that
appeared fragile and obscure. Sartre placed the
absolute liberty of the individual at the centre
of his thought. He set this liberty within the
of the
of the
consciousness, fettered as it is. The nature of
consciousness was innately double, formed at
one and the same time by what Sartre called
facticité, or density of being, and by its nega¬
tion, transcendance.
Relations with other people are nonetheless
a constitutive dimension of consciousness, for
the negation of consciousness is inseparable
from a coming to awareness of the existence of
other consciousnesses. If Sartre, in the wake of
German phenomenology, asserts that the
world is present in consciousness, he also
affirms even more strongly throughout his
work that the Other is also present. Certainly,
in Sartre's initial thinking, relations with other
people are torn between a masochism that
turns the subject into an object for the Other,
and a sadism that does the reverse. The danger
to liberty is summed up in the famous phrase,
"Hell is other people".
In such circumstances, how can the indivi¬
dual in society escape the danger of "becoming
an object"? How can he discover and redis¬
cover his liberty? Initially, for Sartre, passivity
was the inescapable fate of every collective pro¬
ject. The individual alone offered the possibility
of activity. From 1950 onwards, the philoso¬
pher's efforts were directed at escaping this
entrapment. It was at that point that he
encountered Marxism, a crucial turning-point.
In L'Etre et le Néant, Sartre paid no heed to
Marxist, we exalted the powers of pure
consciousness and liberty, yet we were also
anti-spiritualist." The defeat of Fascism, colo-'
nialism, the struggles for national liberation, the
Marxism. Simone de Beauvoir described their
position at the time: "Anti-capitalist but not
oneself be transcended by the Other. "We" was
something other than a simple collection of
"I"s. The unity of the fused group was practical
and not ontological.
Sartre's relationship with Marxism could be
summarized in four exemplary points: to
demonstrate that the free activity of the indivi¬
dual is the only foundation of historical pro¬
gress; that the only group practice that is not
socially passive is that of the insurrectional or
fused group; that, to survive, this group must
interiorize passivity in activity, finishing by
becoming institutionalized; finally, that the
driving force is class conflict, with the ruling
classes maintaining passivity and the fused
group re-establishing the synthesizing praxis.
This great work was never finished; Sartre
only composed the first volume, Théorie des
ensembles pratiques. It nonetheless exerted a
direct influence on political and theoretical
debates about Marxism around the world.
Sartre (second from the
right) with Simone de
Beauvoir, on his right, during
an editorial meeting of the
magazine Les Temps
Modernes, at Sartre's home
in Paris, in 1978.
fight for liberty by armed force if necessary.
Some years later, he subjected the continuation
of the French presence in the country and the
idea of assimilation to a radical critique. In the
worst moments of the war, disillusioned by the
Communist left, he addressed himself to the
young and publicly expressed his solidarity
with the support networks of the Algerian
National Liberation Front, while in 1961, in the
Declaration of the 121, he reaffirmed the right
to refuse submission.
By involving himself so totally in the anticolonial struggle, played out against the back¬
drop of the Cold War at a time when the true
nature of the "real socialism" of the Eastern
lands was gradually becoming apparent, Sartre
discovered the important role that the peoples
of the Third World had to play in the emanci¬
pation of humanity in general. If he sub¬
sequently defended nationalism in face of criti¬
cism from the Left, it was because he conceived
it as a type of particularism that must even¬
tually wind up as universalism.
By taking this stand, Sartre uncompromi¬
singly incarnated an ethically robust image of
the French and European intellectual: that of a
man who does not hide behind indifference or
self-interest, who will have no truck with
The anti-colonialist cause
At the same period Sartre also published Les
séquestrés d'Altona, a play that was haunted not
Sartre at a demonstration in
favour of immigrants.
France, 1971.
dence, with his commitment over the Vietnam
so much by Nazism as by torture and the Al¬
War, in the Russell tribunal and in the struggle
against all dictatorships as well as in his support
of the youth protest movement that led in
France to the events of May 1968. Over the
ensuing decade he became, in spite of his
advanced age, an influential figure in every
struggle for liberty.
In 1970, this tireless fighter attempted to
group together all the forces working for
freedom in society. Radicalizing his commit¬
gerian war. Sartre's resistance, both theoretical
and practical, to Nazism is well known, but
much less attention has been paid to his anticolonialist activities, despite the publicity they
attracted at the time. By then Sartre had become
a celebrated writer and philosopher, and it was as
an intellectual as well as
a militant that he
defended the people of the Third World in their
struggle for emancipation. This ethical exigency,
on which Sartre never yielded, exerted an
influence beyond the borders of France and
served as an example to other writers across the
ment, he became the editor-in-chief of far-Left
journals like La cause du peuple and Libération,
devoting time to militant politics and radical
debate that he could ill afford to spare from
pure literature. In spite of this intense political
activity and his own declining health, he none¬
theless undertook and published his great work
on Gustave Flaubert, L'Idiot de la famille
(1971-72), whose three volumes and 2,400
pages proved an extraordinary and highly
influential synthesis of existentialism, Marxism,
psychoanalysis and structuralism.
For thirty years, marked by precision in
revolt, an intractable ethical sense and just and
noble anger against indifference and baseness,
His two favoured issues of the time were
the Algerian war and the emancipation of black
people, crushed by centuries of foreign domi¬
nation and slavery. He upheld the right of the
Algerian people to independence, and main¬
tained the necessity for free men to support the
cause or else sec any stable ethic of liberty, not
to say humanism itself, founder. This position
attracted little support in Europe. Sartre spread
the message worldwide and helped bridge the
gap between young people, increasingly dis¬
oriented by the blindness and cynicism of their
Sartre, as a militant and a writer, involved himself
elders, and an ineffective Left. Thanks to him,
philosophy which is shortly to
body and soul in the changing fortunes of his
time. Perhaps it is this uncompromising commit¬
ment, served by an impressive writing talent, that
best explains his worldwide influence.
For some people a simple product of the
media age or a symptom of the trouble and dis¬
turbances of the epoch, for others a hero of our
time, a voice of modernity and a moral con¬
science that will long remain a model and a
beacon of hope, Sartre did more than simply
mark his generation; he invented a new image of
be published in Arabic.
the master, one that was both free and fraternal. O
the ideas of the Enlightenment and the interna¬
tionalist aims of the revolutionary movements
of the Left regained their cutting edge.
To make Europeans aware of colonial reali¬
ties, he employed as a tool of concrete informa¬
tion and theoretical reflection the revue Les
Temps modernes, which he had founded in
1945 with the philosopher Maurice MerleauPonty. As early as 1952, in an interview
accorded to an Algerian newspaper, Sartre was
defending the right of the Algerian people to
contempt, torture or war crimes, but instead
loudly proclaims certain fundamental values.
Such was the case, after Algeria won indepen¬
Moroccan writer and
journalist, is the author of an
essay on 20th-century French
The swan song
ofa master
by Kazutoshi Watanabe
MASTER of Go is one of the finest
novels of Yasunari Kawabata, who
to write his novel in 1942, but did not finish it
in 1968. Kawabata, who committed suicide in
until 1954. This slow gestation seems to. have
been a long exercise in mourning for a master
who for Kawabata was irreplaceable.
1972, is one of Japan's best-known authors in
the international world of letters, where he is
won the Nobel Prize for Literature
considered to be an heir to the Japanese literary
tradition. In spite of his wide knowledge of
Western literature and civilization and his great
The novel gives an account of Master Shusai's
interest in modern thought, Kawabata was the
spokesman of a certain idea of beauty which, he
farewell tournament against Otaké, a player of
the Seventh Rank who is regarded as his poten¬
tial successor. To win the right to challenge the
believed, was exclusive to traditional Japan. As
Master, Otaké has had to beat all the other can¬
a Master of the Japanese novel, he had much in
didates in a qualifying tournament. The stakes
are high. Shusai has never been defeated and
common with the main character of the Master
of Go.
this is the last chance for a young player to pit
The eponymous hero of the novel embodies
his wits against him. For Shusai to retire unde¬
an age that is over and a certain ethical position
associated with it. True, his mastery only
extends to Go, a game which is in some res¬
pects comparable to chess. But the story of
how he is defeated for the only time in his
career and dies shortly after is also a deeply-felt
description of the decline of a generation
Master and Otaké presented a complete
invested with old traditions, and the death-
contrast, quiet against constant motion, nerve-
throes of its values. The novel is imbued with a
lessness against nervous tension." Otaké likes
sense of natsukashisa
feated would imply that the rising generation of
players were no match for him and would feel
inferior to him for ever.
The Master and his challenger seem to have
nothing in common, starting with their attitude
during the game. "Seated at the board, the
a word which means
to joke while playing and often gets up to go to
"nostalgia" and in Kawabata denotes an intense
the toilet, whereas "Once he had sunk himself
desire to return to a place or a person one has
into a session, the Master did not leave the
known and loved, who is lost for ever, and
board". Physically, Otaké weighs twice as
much as the Master. His family life with his
whom one will only meet again after death..
Master Shusai, the hero of the novel, was
wife and their three children seems to be
based on a real person, and Kawabata, who
happy. He is surrounded by pupils. The
covered his final tournament for the daily
Master, on the other hand, has no children and
newspaper which organized it, knew him at
his favourite pupil, of whom he expected great
things, is dead. He lives a solitary life shared
first hand. The tournament took place in 1938
and Shusai died early in 1940. Kawabata began
only by his wife. This, then, is a face-to-face
A game of Go. 19th-century
Japanese engraving.
encounter between an old Master who has lost
almost everything and is staking his reputation
may seem unfair, the Master is put out of his
stride. He thinks that the game has been "be¬
on this confrontation, and a happy young pro¬
digy with his life before him.
smirched" and is no longer worth playing. This
is a somewhat hasty judgement and one which
But it is also a confrontation between two
he later reverses. Nevertheless, the Master
conceptions of the game. The Master has only
seems to regard the game of Go as an aesthetic
played two tournaments in the previous dozen
years, and in the intervening time much has
experience, whereas his adversary is primarily
concerned with efficiency and plays to win.
Otaké is just as interesting a character as the
changed. Now there is little scope for the
players to express their individuality. The
Master, like any other player, is required to
obey strict rules which guarantee that the
contest takes place in conditions of complete
equality. The players are sealed in an inn during
Master. He embodies the spirit of rationalism
and modernity which is taking over contempo¬
rary Japan as well as the game of Go. He does
not lack human qualities. Throughout the tour¬
is allowed a strictly controlled time in which to
nament he is shown to be profoundly res¬
pectful towards the Master, and at the end is
grieved to defeat him. He is caught in a
make his moves. All these rules are new to the
dilemma. On one hand he wants to be faithful
Master and put him at a disadvantage.
to the new spirit of the game, which enforces
equality between the players and strict obser¬
vance of the rules, and is constantly discon¬
certed by what he regards as the Master's arbi¬
trary demands. At the same time he is acutely
embarrassed to be playing against an opponent
whose failing health eventually brings to the
tournament the atmosphere of a slow and cruel
the several months of the tournament. Each one
Throughout the tournament the Master
tries to resist the constraints imposed on him.
Otaké, who is presented as a fair competitor,
protests vigorously against the many ways in
which the Master bends the rules, not so much
deliberately as through inability to grasp the
new spirit of the game. The Master plays like
an artist. In his eyes a game is a work of art
which the two players create together, each
according to his own style and vision of the
game, a fair encounter based on a moral com¬
mitment and mutual confidence, rather than on
the strict application of a host of pettifogging
rules which, as the narrator points out, merely
encourage the players to find loopholes in
But this conception of the game has become
outmoded, and when Otaké makes a move that
execution. Whatever reservations the narrator
may feel about the spirit of modern rationalism
represented by the rising generation of players,
and in spite of his patent sympathy for the
Master, he casts no aspersions on Otaké's inte¬
grity, except for one brief moment of doubt
which is immediately overcome.
Otaké represents a new mentality, a new
system. If he plays the role of executioner of
the old Master, it is not by choice but because
he is part of the evolution of Go. To remain
nonchalant match, letting well enough alone.
There was no end to his patience and endu¬
rance. He played day and night, his obsession
somewhat disquieting. It was less as if he were
playing to dispel gloom or beguile tedium than
as if he were giving himself up to the fangs of
gaming devils."
There is a kind of morbidity in this passion.
On each shobû (victory or defeat) in which his
reputation is staked, the Master stakes his life as
a Go player, and this joust with death seems to
bring him an enjoyment which is quite differ¬
ent from the anodyne pleasure that people
usually look for in a game. In this sense, the
connection made between the Master and death
is by no means gratuitous: the Master is
someone who enjoys dicing with death at every
moment, even in a pursuit which for other
people is only a diversion.
game that demands great
popular, Go, like other traditional games, must
adapt to social change and meet new demands
skill and strategy. It is
such as those of the media. The old Master is
Playing Go in Japan. Go is a
played on a board with black
not opposed to attention from the media, since
and white go-ishi (flat, round
he agrees to take part in a tournament spon¬
sored by a leading newspaper. The firmness
with which Otaké opposes any laxity in the
pieces known as stones).
application of the rules seems less a reflection
of his personality than part of the implacable
law of modernity, which excludes all forms of
favouritism, even above all those that may
benefit the Master. The network of rules tight¬
ens around the old player with his outmoded
word bonyari (which means "absent-minded"
or "vague") is often used to describe the
Master's behaviour, reactions or facial expres¬
sion. Here, perhaps, we see the other side of his
constant confrontation with death. At the other
extreme to the mental effort deployed in a
game whose strategy is governed with mathe¬
matical rigour, this "vagueness" which is so
much a part of the Japanese aesthetic tradition
is connected to the Master's remarkable capa¬
city for concentration. Terms such as muga
(absence from oneself) or boga (forgctfulness of
ideas which are sacrificed on the altar of pro¬
gress, a relentless process on which the very
self) are often used to describe the Master's
survival of the game in the modern world
depends. From this point of view, Otaké does
state illustrates an artistic side öf Go, for the
no more than perform as conscientiously as
possible his duty, which is to cross the thresh¬
the joy of creation.
old of a new era; to do this he must immolate
the Master, the glorious representative of a past
that must be rejected in favour of modernity.
total absorption in the game. His trance-like
game fever that consumes him is one aspect of
This tireless quest for enjoyment, in which
the game becomes simultaneously more serious
and more dangerous, also shows up another
facet of the Master's character, a childishness
which conflicts with his physical appearance.
The doctor says that "He has a body like an
undernourished child" and that his body only
Where does the Master stand in this ideological
tolerates medicines in doses that "a thirteen- or
struggle between two generations, two visions
of the world, two universes? Why do we
respond to him as readers, and what makes his
fourteen-year-old might take". Like a child he
rejects lukewarm pleasures and unreasonably
seeks intense enjoyment in the frenzy of the
his appetite for games". He cultivates childish¬
of Japan, has a special
death at the end of the novel so poignant?
Even while he suffers, the Master is quite at
home in the claustrophobic atmosphere of the
interest in French literature
tournament, the morbid and almost inhuman
expect to find in an old master.
and in particular in the works
world of the game. He has no life outside the
preparing a study on Proust's
À la recherche du temps
perdu ("Remembrance of
Things Past"), which is to be
published shortly in
game. "The Master was like a starved urchin in
ness rather than the wisdom that we might
totally. "Most professional Go players like
For the Master does not want to grow up,
whereas Japan, society, and the game of Go
itself, are forced to do so. The coming of matu¬
rity is an irresistible process which duly takes
other games as well, but the Master's addiction
its toll in the form of the death of the childlike
was rather special. He could not play an easy,
of Marcel Proust. He is
And yet in a way he is absent-minded.
Questioned by the narrator about his amazing
powers of endurance, he explains: "Maybe I
have no nerves. A vague, absent sort maybe
the vagueness has been good for me." The
competition. Paradoxically, he is swallowed up
by the game, to which he abandons himself
Teachers at the crossroads
Jacky Beillerot talks to Rachid Sabbaghi
The word maître or master has a very specific
meaning in French education. Can you tell us
something about this and more generally about your
views on the teacher's place in society today.
- In the French educational system, the word
maître or master has traditionally been used to
designate the primary school teacher. Now, as a
result of a recent reform, primary teachers are
going to be known as professeurs d'école
(schoolteachers), so that there will be a single
category of teachers in the school system pro¬
Working as a team in a
school in Bayonne, France.
who teach at primary and secondary
level. Incidentally, the traditional image of the
primary school teacher as a magisterial figure
dispensing knowledge is also found in higher
education, where some distinguished university
professors are still considered as maîtres à
penser, intellectual guides and mentors.
However, in terms of social history, it is a
long time since the schoolteacher ceased to be
regarded as a magisterial figure. This is an
important point, one that is central to the pur¬
pose and practice of education. In an educa
tional context, the French word maître denotes
someone who possesses mastery of a certain
body of knowledge. This person, whatever his
or her field may be, is always someone of
exceptional culture, knowledge or skill. Per¬
haps the word maître is still used to describe
the teacher because teachers are people who
initiate others into a given branch of know¬
ledge. But when you have a teaching profession
staffed by thousands of civil servants, does it
make sense to call them maîtres in the tradi¬
tional sense of the term? Let's look at the ques¬
tion from a different angle. Does the learner
really need an authority-figure? One reason
why teachers occupy a less important place in
Western society today than they once did is
because Western society's conception of author¬
ity in general, and that of the teacher's authority
in particular, has changed considerably.
Would it be correct to talk of an "image crisis"
where teachers are concerned?
Yes. There is a crisis because traditional
models, values and systems can no longer be
reproduced in their existing forms. Nor are
they capable of solving today's problems. This
brings us to the complex and crucial question
of the place of education in contemporary
to model themselves on. This approach leaves
many pupils by the wayside because, for
reasons it would take too long to explain here,
they cannot identify with the classic image of
the teacher. In democratic societies where every¬
On the one hand, education and training are
required to solve all kinds of problems. In the
absence of economic or political solutions, we
one, children and adults alike, must have access
turn to education. What do people say when
riots break out in the suburbs of big cities?
They say that young people must be educated.
What should we do about the spread of AIDS?
The same answer. Societies are asking more and
more of education, and refuse to accept that
education cannot deliver the goods. In the past
it was accepted that some children did well at
school and others didn't. The schools, which
were a reflection of the hierarchies and divi¬
sions that existed in society at large, didn't
worry overmuch about this. Today we want
schools to be accessible to everyone, but we
realize that the teacher's task has become so
difficult that traditional approaches and sys¬
tems are no longer adequate.
Teaching has become a new kind of job.
Many things have changed, although we
teachers tend to act as though they haven't.
Large numbers of children today don't take it
for granted that they should learn. Why is this?
The answer is that in order to learn, the learner
must have a reason to do so. Many children no
longer see the point of learning. One of the
new tasks facing the teacher today is to try to
help children to find a reason to learn.
How are teachers responding to this new challenge?
At the moment it is easier to identify the
problems that are emerging than to propose
solutions to them. One answer is for the teacher
A mobile classroom for
young, nomadic gypsies in
the south of France.
to become a professional educator. Many
people think that teachers need something more
than mastery of a body of knowledge, that they
must use a whole range of educational tech¬
niques. This is the only way to give all children
a chance to learn. This is a technical response.
Another response, which is totally different,
is to continue to regard the teacher as a reposi¬
tory of knowledge and someone for the pupils
to as much knowledge as possible, I believe that
this traditional approach is not bad so far as it
goes, but it does not go far enough.
Nevertheless, these two responses do teach
us something. Learning can only be meaningful
for the pupil if teaching is meaningful for the
teacher. Teachers cannot be dissociated from
the knowledge they transmit. They cannot
simply stand up and tell their pupils what they
know; their knowledge must be an essential part
of their own lives and their own development.
There is undoubtedly a crisis here. It would
be unreasonable at the present time to define
ways of overcoming it. It may even be back¬
ward-looking to say that there is a crisis and
that a successful outcome to it is possible. In
order to understand our crisis-ridden societies
we must tell ourselves that societies expe¬
rienced crises in the past without people clearly
realizing what was happening. Perhaps crisis
may even be the normal condition of society. If
it is, then the old vision of a peaceful society
may be outdated, an idea which no longer cor¬
responds either to our perceptions or to the
If this analysis is correct, the question of
knowledge arises in a different form: how can
we come to terms with an increasingly acute
awareness of social and psychological conflicts?
In this respect our history has left most people
in a vulnerable position. Perhaps because it is
easier to live with answers than with questions.
And society today is a society of questions.
Some people believe that the crisis in the
transmission ofknowledge reflects a more general
crisis ofmediation in modern societies.
This is what I would call the crisis of autho¬
rity. Here I subscribe to the ideas put forward
over thirty years ago by the French sociopsychoanalyst Gérard Mendel in a book called
La crise des générations. We live in societies
where the past no longer governs either the
present or the future. Essentially, education is a
conservative force since its purpose is to
transmit old knowledge. This is where things
become complicated: we no longer teach old
forms of knowledge to reproduce a model, as
we did in the past, but to make something new.
By definition, we don't know what this
"something new" actually is. The new cannot
be taught, only the past.
Any discussion of education today must
face this profound contradiction. In traditional
societies, as the French anthopologist Maurice
Godelier has explained, education consists not
only of transmitting knowledge but also
teaching about status, place and role things
that have become fluid in modern societies.
What will it mean to be the mother or father of
a family thirty years from now? What will have
happened to the different professions in the
meantime? We don't know. I would say that
we teach without any precise bearings.
This class in Colorado is
directed by a teacher of Inuit
How far has this new situation been brought about
by changes in the world of work in the last twenty
years? What knowledge should be transmitted
today? How is it possible to be a mediator in these
Half the jobs that will be available in fifteen
years' time are jobs that don't even exist today. .
. . To teach is to be a mediator between know¬
ledge and a person. That is why there are limits
to what can be achieved by autodidacticism. For
someone to be educated or trained, there has to
be a human intermediary. In psychoanalysis,
education takes place through the process of
transference. I think that this is a supremely
important point. But here too things are chan¬
ging. It is remarkable how, in Western society
in the last fifteen years or so, parent substitutes
have been invented or reinvented. By providing
more and more teachers and educators of all
kinds we try to compensate for something
missing from relationships between individuals.
A desire to achieve greater independence of
thought, creativity, learning, and identity are all
part of this phenomenon. But at the same time
we do not know how to create the interpersonal
relationships that are indispensable to these
aspirations. This transformation of the human
relationship between child and adult, or bet¬
ween adult and adult, is crucial to most of the
problems that arise in education and training.
French professor of education
sciences at the University of
Paris X, at Nanterre. He has
directed a number of training
courses for teachers and
instructors, both within and
outside the University. He is
the author of several articles
and a number of books
including Voies et voix de la
formation ("Trainingthe
word and the way"), Éditions
Universitaires, Paris, 1988,
and he contributed to the
collective work Savoir et
rapport au savoir
("Knowledge and how we
relate to it"), Éditions
Universitaires, Paris 1989.
In view of the growing complexity of knowledge,
above all ofscientific knowledge, some people are
wondering whether the classic forms ofteaching are
still valid. What do you think about this?
to go on, apart from a few experiments. Even if
we do manage to find new resources, because
we have no choice, we shall have to keep some
parts of the traditional system. It is impossible
to imagine the future of education without edu¬
cators, or, whatever Utopians may think,
without institutions. The institutions will prob¬
ably be new, but they will still be institutions.
The relationships between teacher and pupil,
educator and educated, trainer and trainee, will
be different, but they will still exist. The new
techniques will exist within frameworks which
will long remain classic, even if it is still impos¬
sible to imagine what forms they will take.
The French legal historian and theorist Pierre
Legendre has looked at the problem of the
transmission ofknowledge and he thinks that the
West wants to replace the idea of reference to
established authorities by the idea of management. Is
it possible to manage the transmission ofknowledge
without the reference to the symbolic and imaginary
landmarks that underlie it?
Let's put the problem in a broader context.
The organization of modern societies, the mas¬
tery of social and individual processes, calls for
increasing rationalism. At every level, from the
state to the village, at home and at school, more
and more reasoning, concepts and rational
behaviour are required. And so the following
question arises. Does this increased rationalism
abolish the need for what you call "reference",
that is the role of values and tradition, every¬
thing that does not belong to the rational
order? The problem, as we can see in Western
countries today, is that we are not sure what
It is true that the quantity and complexity of
knowledge are constantly increasing and that
modern societies call for a great capacity to
understand abstractions. There are grounds for
fearing that not enough people can achieve the
necessary level. There is a risk that many
people will be left behind.
values this rationalism should serve. We don't
This being the case, we are probably not
high point of the idea that it is possible to deli¬
allocating sufficient resources to education, but
do we have any idea what kind of new
resources are required? We have nothing firm
berately build a society, with a little of the past
really know what vision to offer to the indivi¬
dual and the community.
This conflict has worsened in the late twen¬
tieth century, notably because the grand
designs of the eighteenth and nineteenth centu¬
ries have failed. Soviet societies marked the
but above all with much of its future. It was a
It will be a long time before we reinvent,
not a new utopia but a new way of thinking,
and renounce the myth of the ideal city.
Has the teacher been an agent ofsuch utopias?
Often. In France, for example. Between the
Revolution and the mid-nineteenth century, the
teacher really was a mediator, the propagator of
the values of the republic and of democracy.
A newpartnership
What changes have there been in Western thinking
about the role of the teacher?
Contemporary thinking about the mission
of the teacher goes back to the philosophy of
by Jacques Hallak
the Enlightenment. Reason, in the sense of a
superior human perception of reality, of know¬
ledge based on reason, sustained the ideologies
of teaching and the teacher. In the nineteenth
century the school system was built around the
teaching of truth and science. Between the
TEACHERS once belonged to a self-confi¬
dent, prestigious profession, strong in
numbers and highly thought of by the
general public. But since the early 1980s, when
nineteenth century and the middle of the twen¬
tieth 'there have been various changes where
French primary and secondary school teachers
are concerned. But their role continued to be
education came to the forefront as one of the
firmly buttressed by the ideas of the Enlighten¬
ment and scientific education. Every village in
France then had its exponent of Enlightenment
major preoccupations of our time, two signifi¬
cant trends have led to the very bases of the
profession being called into question.
The first of these trends is the lowering of
the quality of education. A combination of
demographic, social and economic factors led
to accelerating growth in the school popula¬
Today the status of Reason has become a
matter of controversy, as is indicated by the
new tendency to question the role of scientific
development. People no longer believe, as they
once did, that there is one right way and one
tion. This in turn led to a massive recruitment
only and that science will show us that way.
Science and technology are accepted as a motor
of change, but change is regarded as having
negative as well as positive aspects. The need
for choices and values is again making itself felt.
of teaching staff the 1970 world total of 14.6
million primary teachers and 9.3 million second¬
ary teachers rose to 22.7 million and 17.7 mil¬
lion respectively in 1989. In many countries,
this recruitment was carried out with very
limited resources and qualified candidates were
not always to be found. As a result the quality
of education deteriorated and the standing of
Western societies are increasingly becoming
multicultural. Recent issues such as whether children
should be allowed to wear the Islamic scarf in
French schools or whether the children of
immigrants should be taught the mother tongues of
theirparents, have caused widespread debate in
European countries. How are teachers responding to
teachers was lowered.
This increase in numbers meant that the
this situation?
France has been a multicultural society for a
long time. It started to become one when it
built itself with its own minorities (Basques,
Savoyards, Bretons, Alsatians, and so on). For
many years it has been a host country to people
from all over the world. In any case, are there
any societies that are not multicultural? If we
are more aware of this question than we once
were, perhaps it is because multiculturalism is
increase. Societies will become increasingly
multi-ethnic, multicultural and multilingual.
The question that . arises is whether the
minority culture will be crushed, pushed to the
sidelines or even ostracized by the dominant
culture. Today the idea that the dominant cul¬
ture should impose itself to the detriment of
local cultures is contested. In Western countries
we are trying to define what should belong to a
common culture and what should belong to
specific cultures. As society has not come up
with any answer, it is very difficult for the
school, which is only one element in society, to
reply alone.
as teacher.
teaching materials, as is often the case in the
developing countries) or relations with pupils
are strained, then a further serious deterioration
in the quality of education is inevitable, with all
the harmful effects on pupils this may entail.
The second significant trend is of a different
nature. One of the major characteristics of our
day is the accelerating advance of science and
technology. Information and communication
services of every kind have become part of our
daily lives, depriving teachers of their former
monopoly position as the sole source of know¬
ledge. Suddenly, education is no longer the
concern of specialists alone. It has become an
object of political debate on which parents,
parties and groups of all kinds demand their
say. The work of the teacher is now subject to
increasingly critical appraisal. At the same time,
there is no longer a general consensus in society
and among children and their families as to the
nature and utility of the knowledge being
transmitted. This more critical attitude is due to
social change and to competition from the
media as a new source of information, expe¬
rience and values.
This holds true especially for the industria¬
lized countries and for the urban areas of the
developing world. Queried and criticized as
transmitters of knowledge, teachers now find a
new and impossible task thrust upon them
that of helping their pupils to interpret often
contradictory information received from a
multiplicity of sources over which, as teachers,
they have no control. The teaching process has
thus become less a matter of transmitting an
accepted, well-defined body of knowledge than
of an often haphazard attempt to bring some
kind of order to a jumbled intake of piecemeal
surprising that there is a growing tendency for
Low salaries paid to teachers owing to eco¬
teachers, from the primary level upwards, to
give up the struggle. The typical teacher in
North America, in Europe and in a growing
number of developing countries, now sides
with his or her pupils. Unable to retain their
former status and position and with no
alternative position to assume, teachers have no
means of maintaining the necessary balance
between knowledge and authority. Yet this
balance is vital not only to social intercourse
and the development of the individual, but also
to the definition of the place and role of
knowledge within a society. The school is, par
excellence, the place where questions such as
Institute for Educational
nomic difficulties are an additional element
these should be handled. Teachers' new, more
Planning. Before taking up
contributing to the crisis. In several countries,
teachers' pay is over fifty per cent less than that
of other professions requiring a similar level of
training. Clearly, this makes it difficult to
attract and retain the best qualified and most
motivated personnel. If, owing to inadequate
resources, working conditions are also difficult
(classrooms crowded, ill-equipped and not
properly maintained, absence or shortage of
cautious approach to their pupils is not merely
a symptom of their uncase, it is a determinant
A university lecture at
the Sorbonne, Paris.
Watercolour by
Madeleine Ochsé (c. 1930).
profession had to accept candidates who were
less and less well prepared and its traditional
prestige was further devalued by the introduc¬
tion of a host of new grades for teachers (often
given excessively grandiose titles, or none at all)
which in many cases bore little relationship to
the existing hierarchical structure. These
external pressures effectively destroyed the
normal staff renewal process and contributed
further to the devaluation of the profession's
French economist of
Lebanese origin, is director of
Unesco's International
this post he was a member of
the staff of the French
Finance Ministry, taught at
various French universities
(including Paris, Caen and
Nanterre), became a senior
programme planning officer in
Unesco's Bureau of Studies
and Programming and then
went on to join the World
Bank as an economist.
factor in the deterioration of the educational
situation and in the increasingly mediocre
achievement of education and training.
How can those responsible for education
services meet this challenge? To my mind, only
by adopting wide-ranging, long-term measures
aimed at making quality the central goal of
educational policy and re-thinking the basic
concepts of education and training.
If quality is to be reinstated as the primary
goal, this will require a redistribution of
Practical training at
a pilot school at Bunumbu,
Sierra Leone.
resources so as to establish a more balanced
distribution of funds between the financing of
an expansion of the number of pupils and stu¬
dents enrolled in schools and universities and
the resources made available to improve the
conditions of schooling through the acquisition
of appropriate teaching materials, the renova¬
tion of the existing facilities for the introduction
into the system of newly-qualified teachers, a
sources and training and, above all, the improve¬
ment of teachers' material conditions. In some
countries, bringing teachers' pay up to a suitable
level would imply not only a doubling of their
salaries but also provision of an improved career
structure. Despite their cost, these measures are
essential if we really want to attract and keep
the best candidates. But even this would not be
enough. Two further measures should be imple¬
mented the introduction of incentive pay¬
ments to encourage good professional perfor¬
mance and a vast programme of refresher
courses involving training that is more coherent
and better adapted to what society expects of
the teacher and the school.
There is also a need for a new philosophy of
education and training. The old vision of the
profession of teacher which involved individual
skills being rewarded in the manner of the other
liberal professions is now outmoded. In the
face of greater competition from a much wider
range of sources of knowledge, the job of the
teacher is more and more coming to be seen as
being that of a participant in a wider, general
process having specific responsibilities within the
framework of an organized division of tasks
between the various sources of knowledge. It is
no longer an individualistic profession. Recruited
both for his learning and for his social and
professional experience, the teacher becomes a
partner in the pedagogical team, in the widest
sense of the term, sharing in the training and
educational process.
The way to prevent the spread of these uneasy
feelings of disarray, dysfunction and disillusion is
to move towards a démystification of the status of
the teaching profession. Teachers no longer have
a monopoly of knowledge and they must be pre¬
pared, as is the rule in any other occupation, to
submit to assessment of their performance and to
recognize that the quality of their work can affect
both their salaries and their careers.
If teachers can accept this new status, if they
can accept that there are many dimensions to
social life, that they are but one source of know¬
ledge among many others, that they should be
responsible for and submit to evaluation of the
quality of the services they provide, they will be
better paid, more highly respected and better
equipped to take their proper place in the world
of work.
Unesco and
DURING the 1960s, UNESCO's activities in
the field of teacher training were mainly
concentrated on the newly independent
countries. The departure, sometimes rather pre¬
cipitate, of former colonial administrative staff
and the desire to achieve rapid national devel¬
opment and a democratic system of education,
led most of these countries to ask UNESCO for
help in elaborating their development policies.
In this context, education, in particular the
training of teachers, was seen as a priority task.
At that time UNESCO concentrated on provi¬
ding the greatest possible amount of initial train¬
ing. With a view to increasing national capacity
to meet the shortage of qualified teachers,
national pedagogical Institutes were established
in most of these countries, existing training in¬
stitutions were strengthened, on the spot train¬
ing was provided for those who were to train
the teachers, grants were awarded for study and
finishing courses, study trips and information
exchange mechanisms were organized. UNESCO
also made specialists available for those coun¬
tries that requested expert help in revising their
educational programmes and curricula.
obtaining the participation of all the social part¬
ners in the vicinity of a school (parents, com¬
munities, companies and associations of all
kinds) in the training of teachers by ensuring
improved selection of candidates for entry into
initial training.
These innovations have been tested and
assessed in a series of pilot projects. These
include: the Bunumbu Primary Teacher Train¬
ing Project, Sierra Leone; the Kakata Rural
Teacher Training Institute, Liberia; the Namu-
tamba Pilot Project, Uganda; Institutes for the
Reform of Primary Education, Yaounde and
Buea, Cameroon; the Educational Television
Programme, Côte d'Ivoire; the Kwamisi Com¬
munity School, Tanzania; the Ghandian Project
for Fundamental Education, Wardha, India; the
Community Education Centre of Comilla,
Bangladesh; and, the Rural School Groups in
Bolivia and Peru.
The World Conference on Education for
All, held at Jomtien, Thailand, in 1990, suc¬
ceeded in broadening the scope of the notion of
basic education to include action relating to
both in-school and non-formal, out-of-school
education. It strongly recommended that
teachers should be trained as generalists, so as
to be able to ensure proper linkage between inschool
the training ofteachers
by André Lokisso lu'Epotu
concerned with the training of
educational personnel
teaching at the Primary level.
He is the author of a number
of articles and is at present
preparing a study on the
school and its environment.
training objectives and programmes and the
teaching methods adopted.
teacher had to be trained who could teach a
wealth Secretariat, the Governments of Brazil
number of subjects and who was not only an
expert in the transmission of basic knowledge,
but who could also act as agents of develop¬
and Portugal, the United Nations Development
Programme, UNICEF and others.
UNESCO is also developing a programme
aimed at improving the running of one-teacher
schools and multi-grade classes. In view of the
current proliferation of schools of this type and
the financial difficulties facing most Member
States, coupled with their desire to ensure
access to education for the greatest possible
number of children, UNESCO is drawing up
another training guide to help encourage and
train teachers working in particularly difficult
conditions, as well as supervisors, administra¬
ment. Towards the end of the 1970s, UNESCO
specialist at Unesco
cation being provided did not always meet the
needs and expectations of these new societies.
From then on improvement in quality of edu¬
cation and in the capacity level of teachers
became the prime objectives. A new type of
These efforts achieved remarkable results.
from Zaire, is a programme
Since the new strategies recommended by
the Conference called for priority to be given to
on-the-job training, UNESCO decided to
develop programmes aimed at strengthening the
management skills of primary school heads.
With this in mind, a reference guide relating to
training in the day-to-day management of
schools has been drawn up, tested and perfected
in collaboration with the Agency for Cultural
and Technical Co-operation, the Common¬
However, it soon became evident that the edu¬
stressed the need for ordered progression from
the initial training given to teachers to subse¬
quent on-the-job training. The Conference also
deplored the lack of coherence between
adopted a new approach which laid emphasis
upon self-training, alternating training (high
quality initial training completed by follow-up,
in-work training), widening of the scope of ini¬
tial training to include out-of-school and envi¬
ronmental activities (creating a direct link bet¬
ween theoretical and practical work), training
in education for specific settings (rural areas,
specific population groups) and the introduc¬
tion of new educational technologies (in parti¬
cular those relating to the media) into the
teacher training curricula.
These new strategies involved seeking and
tors and trainers of trainee teachers.
UNESCO also plans to establish an inventory
of teacher training institutions which will
include an evaluation of these establishments. O
published In a catalogue and will be
policy on schools, for the improvement
of the working conditions of teachers
For further details and application
forms write to: Unesco/ACCU WORLD
In 1972 The Unesco General Conference
adopted a text that was destined to
and, as a consequence, for a raising of
the quality of teaching.
PHOTO CONTEST 1993, Asian Cultural
* Teachers and International Labour
Centre for Unesco (ACCU), Japan
Standards. (1990).
Publishers Building, No. 6, Fukuromachi,
provide guidelines for the formulation of
displayed as part of a travelling
Shlnjuku-ku, 162, Japan.
N.B. The competition is open only to
citizens of Unesco Member States. The
closing date for entries is 1 March
Teachers in Developing Countries. A
Survey of Employment Conditions.
Teachers. Challenges of the 1990s.
meet with great successthe
Convention concerning the protection of
"For a long time we were engaged in a
Unesco's Integral Study of the Silk Roads
war and could not look after our natural
States that signed it to co-operate in the
(1987-1997) already has four
and cultural heritage", said Dr. Dang Van
protection of the planet's most precious
expeditions to its creditthe Northern
Bai, Deputy Director of the Department
natural and cultural sites and
Route, from Xlan in China to Kashgar,
for Antiquity Preservation and Museums,
monuments. At a time when both sites
Turklstan (July-August 1990); the
at a Unesco Regional Workshop held In
and monuments are equally under
Maritime Route, from Venice to Japan
Jakarta, in April, to mark the 20th
threat, the Convention has paved the
(October 1990-March 1991); the Steppe
anniversary of the World Heritage
way for a great effort of International
Route, in Soviet central Asia (April-June
Convention. The six sites that Vietnam is
solidarity. Twenty years after its
1991); the Nomads/Altaic Route, from
proposing for inclusion on the World
adoption, 127 countries are signatories
Khobdo In the Altai Mountains, across
Heritage List are: The Imperial City of
to the Convention and 358 monuments
Mongolia, to Ulan Bator (July-August
Hue, with Its palaces, tombs, shrines,
or sites, in 83 countries, are inscribed '
pagodas and temples; the sea port of
the World Cultural and Natural Heritage.
This innovative text committed the
on the World Heritage List.
To the 23 volumes of scientific
16th and 17th centuries; the historic
series of events and festivities are to
first three routes can be added 14
site of Hoa Lu, In Nlnh Blnh province,
take place at Unesco's Paris
books about the routes that have
which contains an 11th-century citadel
headquarters and in 27 countries from
already been published and a series of
and temples dedicated to two
8th July to 8th October, 1992. Events
4 soon-to-be-released children's books
Vietnamese kings; the superb mountain
planned include an exhibition of
co-published by Unesco. The project has
area of Huong Son, with its Buddhist
photographs, film shows and
helped achieve a better understanding
sanctuary set in a vast grotto; an island
performances of traditional music and
of the profound influence the peoples of
containing neolithic remains in the
dance. Scale models of famous sites
Eurasia have had upon one another.
middle of Ha Long Bay, In Quang Ninh
and monuments, such as the Temple of
Time and time again scholars have been
province; Cue Phuong National Forest, In
the Sun, Konarak, India, and Aachen
amazed by the overlap in architecture,
Nlnh Binh province, with its thousand-
Cathedral, Germany, are on display in
religious practices, customs and other
year-old trees and rare animals.
the grounds of Unesco, as is a traditional
aspects of culture they have found all
Hungarian house that has been
along the Silk Roads.
dismantled, transported to Paris and re¬
assembled. A Bavarian beer tent has
Hoi An, with buildings dating from the
papers delivered at seminars along the
To celebrate this anniversary a
also been erected to provide
On 9 June 1992, The Republic of
refreshment for the many visitors that
Armenia joined Unesco to become the
are expected.
There are some 40 million teachers in
170th Member State. Other recent
the world and the quality of the teaching
adhesions to the Organization include:
they give depends In large part upon the
The Republic of Kazakhstan, The
terms and conditions of employment to
Republic of Moldova, The Republic of
Photographers all over the world are
which they are subject. Three books
Slovenia, The Republic of Croatia, The
Invited to focus on the family as part of
published by the International Labour
Republic of Kyrgyzstan, and The
Azerbaijani Republic.
a photographic competition organized
Office, in Geneva, together provide an
jointly by Unesco and Japan. The theme
overview of the problems facing the
coincides with that of the United Nations
teaching profession. They give Insights
International Year of the Family, to be
on such questions as career prospects,
held In 1994. The top three entries will
professional relationships and
each receive US$ 5,000 and a Nikon
negotiations, working hours, pay and
The Library at Unesco's Paris
F4 AF camera. In addition there will be
International working standards,
Headquarters now has the complete set
seven special prizes worth US$ 1,000
particularly as they affect teachers in
of the Unesco Courier, from 1948 to the
each and 100 honourable mentions. All
the developing countries. Clear and
present, on microfiche. At present only
the award-winning photographs will be
precise, these three books (listed below)
the English, French and Spanish edltlonsD
This article is one of
a series in which the
Director-General of
Unesco sets out his
thinking on matters
of current concern
The pathfinders
AS early as 1946, William Carr, one of the founding
fathers of UNESCO, pointed out that UNESCO's cen¬
tral task of promoting the right to education could
not be achieved without the participation of teachers. He
became the advocate of an international charter that would
be acceptable to all countries, and twenty years later, in
1966, served as rapporteur at the Special Intergovernmental
Conference on the Status of Teachers.
The importance of this international standard-setting
instrument should not be underestimated: it is the only one
of its kind to cover the entire range of problems facing the
teaching profession. Its 146 provisions still provide useful
guidelines, in all countries, both for national legislation and
for collective bargaining.
The status of teachers is far from satisfactory in many
parts of the world. The rapid expansion and democratiza¬
tion of education have posed a tough challenge to education
systems in the developing countries. Underqualificd and
underpaid teachers with no access to in-service training,
making do with the scanty means available to them, seek to
awaken inquiring minds in their charges.
This alarming situation can be seen at a time when all
countries, whether developed or developing, have begun to
realize the importance of having an educated population. By
"educated" I mean not only knowing how to read, write and
express one's thoughts, but also having a knowledge of the
principles of tolerance, respect and understanding of others,
which are the foundations of peace and co-operation among
The World Declaration on Education for All, adopted
by the international community in Jomtien (Thailand), is an
eloquent expression of the twofold need both to develop
and to improve education. After the family, the teacher is
the child's main educator, and in this capacity he or she is a
necessary partner in any educational undertaking.
The Jomtien Conference established a set of priorities, and
pointed out, among other things, the need for parallel and
non-formal structures and programmes to supplement
regular schooling. An estimated 134 million children bet¬
ween the ages of six and eleven, and 283 million adolescents
between the ages of twelve and seventeen have neither
schools nor teachers. The rapid expansion of the out-ofschool sector is such that it should be given greater consider¬
ation in the future. Teachers and their associations can play
a decisive role in this effort, especially by ensuring that staff
in the non-formal sector receive adequate training and sup¬
port, and that their teaching is of a standard comparable to
that provided in school.
I regret the fact that an instrument as valuable as the
Recommendation concerning the Status of Teachers,
adopted in 1966, has not had wider repercussions, and that
its provisions have not been put to better use. Let us inject
fresh life into it by urging governments and non-govern¬
mental organizations to join forces in implementing pro¬
jects that they have drawn up together.
We are currently examining the possibility of creating a
UNESCO "chair" in various universities that would be dedi¬
cated to the overall objective of teacher training. Furthermore,
it is clear that more could be done to promote awareness of
the Recommendation, particularly among professional groups
involved in education at the policy-making and practical
We can also take care that the "teaching dimension"
like the "human dimension" is included in all projects
aiming to enhance the quality and effectiveness of educa¬
tion. In suggesting this, I am merely arguing in favour of
the application of one of the Recommendation's guiding
principles, which states that: "advance in education depends
largely on the qualifications and ability of the teaching staff
in general and on the human, pedagogical and technical
qualities of the individual teachers".
Institutions of higher education also have their part to play
in promoting the teaching profession. We should be wise to
encourage them to adopt a higher profile in such action
through pilot projects or research with a view to developing
innovative approaches.
Finally, wc must give teachers and their elected represen¬
tatives the role that is theirs by right in the drafting and admi¬
nistration of education policies. They must be able to make
their voices heard. This assumes, of course, that they have the
determination to do so, and if they do not always seem as
motivated as they might be, it is perhaps because they do not
see much reason to hope that things will improve.
We must endeavour to show teachers the gratitude they
deserve. This year we are celebrating the four hundredth
anniversary of the birth of Comenius, the great Czech
humanist. Each year we should honour the teaching profes¬
sion, so that the teacher's role may be better known and
appreciated by everyone from decision-makers to the ordi¬
nary citizen. For educators are the key to the future and the
shapers of democracy. They are the disseminators of respect
for others, dialogue, understanding and love.
It is our Organization's greatest hope to contribute to
the public recognition of teachers, and to sustain it by,
among other things, instituting annual UNESCO Prizes. We
could also encourage Member States to create their own
national prizes, on condition, of course, that the objectivity
and professionalism of the assessment of candidates, and
indeed the entire selection process, is guaranteed.
It is up to us to facilitate the task of these educational
The Statue of Liberty after its two-year
restoration (1984-1986).
NOW 106 years old, the Statue of
Liberty is more than a grand old
lady. The embodiment of freedom,
eternal youth and strength, she has inspired
countless immigrants with hope and Ame¬
rican citizens with pride. Known affection¬
ately as "Miss Liberty", the statueFrance's
magnanimous gift to the United States to
commemorate the Declaration of Indepen¬
dence is also a symbol of Franco-American
friendship. The world's largest metal statue,
the "iron lady" is a titan of monumental pro¬
portions; the figure measures 46 metres from
toe to tip, or a total of 93 metres if the base is
also included.
is an American journalist based in Paris.
Besides cementing the friendship of the two
countries, the gift would also express the
French intelligentsia's espousal of liberty at a
time when many chafed under the autocratic
rule of the Emperor Napoleon III.
A guest at the dinner, a talented thirtyone-year-old sculptor named Frédéric
Auguste Bartholdi, enthusiastically volun¬
teered to create the sculpture. It was to take
him more than twenty years to realize his
For the gargantuan task he had set him¬
self, Bartholdi sought inspiration from
ancient Egyptian statuary, from Italian
monuments and from reconstructions of the
The statue was conceived over dinner in
Colossus of Rhodes. Once he had settled on
a fashionable Paris salon in 1865 when the
host, a historian named Edouard René
the image he wished to create, the next step
was to fashion an 11 -metre-high plaster
Lefebvre de Laboulaye, suggested that a
model on which the finished statue would be
monument should be donated to celebrate
America's Independence Centennial in 1876.
At his workshop in the Montparnasse
The Statue
by Suzanne Patterson
with the financing led to delays, however,
speech delivered by US President Grover
and it was not until 1884 that the statue was
district of Paris, dozens of workers laboured
finally assembled, to the bemusement of the
sculptor's Parisian neighbours.
But there was still no pedestal to support
Miss Liberty in New York. An extra
$250,000 was needed to provide it. An
appeal was launched in America to raise the
money. A poet named Emma Lazarus
donated the manuscript of a sonnet contain¬
ing the words, "Give me your tired, your
poor, your huddled masses yearning to
breathe free," garnering $1,500 at auction for
the appeal; the words themselves would later
be inscribed on a bronze plaque inside the
monument. The target was finally reached
after the New York newspaper magnate
Joseph Pulitzer, himself an immigrant from
Hungary, took up the cause in the New
York World, chiding his fellow-citizens for
accepting such a gift without providing for
"a landing-place". Sufficient funds soon
under his supervision to construct the
rolled in.
Since then the statue has become familiar
across the world, but it has also suffered the
assaults of bad weather, pollution and the
salt sea-spray. A survey in the early 1980s
revealed that years of corrosion had left it in
poor condition, and restoration was recom¬
mended. The task began in 1984, the year in
which the Statue of Liberty was included on
UNESCO's World Heritage List, and was
undertaken by American experts with the
help of ten technicians from Rheims in
France. The cost of $31 million was met by
donations from foundations, corporations
and private groups, many of them grouped
under an umbrella organization called the
Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation.
Individual citizens also contributed, and
thousands of schoolchildren raised about
$3 million by selling flowers and washing cars.
Restoration involved complex technical
work to eliminate corrosion, particularly
colossus. He enlisted the aid of Gustave
The site chosen for the statue was on
from the statue's 1,800 metal ribs. The
Eiffel, who was later to build the Eiffel
Bedloe's Island, adjacent to Ellis Island,
where prospective immigrants were pro¬
cessed before entry to the United States.
French contingent chosen for their metal¬
lurgical skills brought two tons of tools
with them, including 100 hammers that they
To make the statue, full-sized sections,
Bartholdi himself had noted the site on an
had made themselves. They stayed for
drawn to the proportions of the original
model, were cast in plaster. Carpenters then
carved wooden moulds matching the shapes
of the plaster sections. Copper sheets were
1871 visit to New York as a place "where
people get their first view of the New
New York iron-workers, to hammer the
copper outer surface and restore the spikes,
Once the pedestal was ready to receive it,
the statue was disassembled and shipped
torch and flame.
Tower, to advise on the engineering of the
statue's iron infrastructure.
hammered onto the moulds and were then
riveted together to form the statue's outer
layer, or "skin".
The money for the construction of the
statuethe equivalent of some $1.3 million
in today's currency was raised via lotteries
and by donations from over 100,000 indivi¬
duals. Bartholdi supported himself with out¬
side commissions, the most famous of which
was the celebrated Lion of Belfort. Problems
across the Atlantic in 214 massive crates. The
official inauguration ceremony finally took
place on 28 October 1886, four months after
the sections had landed on American soil.
The weather was foggy and drizzly, but the
mood was festive. Boats plied the harbour,
cannons were fired, flags were flown and
suffragettes seized the opportunity to wave
mottoes. Few could hear the inaugural
months, even braving a picket line set up by
For more than two years, the statue was
veiled by scaffolding as the technicians
worked to restore it, incorporating improve¬
ments along the way. A double-deckered
glass elevator and a new interior stairway
were installed, and a heating and ventilation
system was fitted. Following renovation, the
statue was pronounced strong enough to
withstand winds of up to 125 miles per hour,
and experts estimated it would stand for at
Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi (pointing at the
plan of the statue) and members of the
American Monument Committee, including
the famous press magnate Joseph Pulitzer
(leaning against the back of the sculptor's
chair). The illustration dates from 1886.
Below, construction of the statue's left hand
in the assembly workshop in Paris.
to the city in 1885 by Americans in Paris
eager to reciprocate the French gift. A cen¬
tury later the French government spent
several million francs restoring the replica,
making use of the opportunity to patch up a
shoulder that had been damaged by a shell
during World War II. In 1989, to celebrate
the bicentennial of the French Revolution,
the International Herald Tribune, an Ame¬
rican newspaper based in Paris, erected a
gold-leaf-covered replica of the liberty flame
nearby, off the Place de l'Aima.
Ultimately, the passions the statue
arouses reflect the grip the image has taken
on the public imagination round the world.
And the roots of its evocative power lie in
the impression the colossus has made on
generations of visitors getting a first impres¬
sion of the New World. "I'll never forget
Miss Liberty as I first saw her when I arrived
in New York Harbour on the ship with my
family forty years ago," says one such, Mar¬
celle Ergas, a British-French citizen who
now divides her time between France and
New York. "We got up at the crack of dawn
least another 500 years. Restored to her full
splendour, the colossus was opened to the
public again in time for the centennial of the
original installation, attracting sight-seers by
the million and souvenir-hawkers galore.
Over the years, the statue has become an
icon of freedom worldwide. At least 206
replicas have been planted on the soil of the
United States and its territories by the Boy
Scouts of America. Look-alikes hold up the
flame in Buenos Aires's Belgrano Park, near
Rio de Janeiro, and in Bangkok. There are
several versions in Japan.
In France, a 2.75-metre model of the
statue decorates the Luxembourg Gardens in
Paris. A fibreglass model now standing in a
sculpture garden at Barentin, near Rouen,
just to see her, and for us, after the war, it
has a particularly bizarre history. It was
created as a prop for a film starring Jean-Paul
Belmondo, in which it served as a receptacle
for smuggling stolen goods into the United
States. After shooting was completed,
French customs officials wanted to destroy
the model, and it was only saved through the
was truly thrilling to see that great sign of
liberty and she also meant 'food' to us, a
symbol of prosperity after so much hardship
during the war."
intervention of Belmondo's father, himself a
The most noteworthy of all the French
copies is, however, the 16-metre-high ver¬
sion that greets tourists on pleasure-boat
trips through Paris as they cruise by the He
aux Cygnes near the Pont de Grenelle.
Guides explain that the model was donated
precarious camps. As a result of
this isolation their art Is less well
known in the outside world than
that of their Armenian, Turkish,
Arab and Persian neighbours.
Kurdish modes are designated by
the same term, maqam, as Arab
modes, but their variants are
given the names of girls or
regions. The lutes, straight flutes
and percussion Instruments used
by the musicians also recall
those of Persia and the Arab
countries. It is a pleasure to
discover this music which springs
from an ancient tradition and
combines sophistication,
earthlness and passion.
Sones Cubanos
Septeto Nacional de Ignacio
Seeco SCCD-9278
The Septeto Nacional, a group
set up in the late 1920s by
Ignacio Pineiro, a remarkable
composer and versatile musician
Viet Nam. Hat Cheo. Traditional
who revived the genre known as
Folk Theatre
son, is a noted institution in the
Anthology of Traditional Musics
CD Unesco D 8022
Many unjustly forgotten or
neglected forms of expression
are waiting to be discovered in
Unesco's superb series of
recordings of traditional music.
One of them is Viet Nam's
wonderful hat cheo, a form of
history of Cuban music. Pineiro
grew up to the sound of African
drums and rumba music in the
black districts of Havana, and in
"Mayeyea no jueges con los
santos" he evokes the sacred
collares (collars) of the santería,
a syncretic Afro-Cuban cult rooted
folk theatre with a satirical
religion. "Suaveclto" with Its
flavour which, as musicologist
brazen allusions, won first prize
Tran Van Khe tells us in the
at the Seville Exhibition In 1929,
notes that accompany this CD, is
and during a visit to Cuba
many centuries old. At times this
whose family has long been
as the güiro, the accordion, a
involved in the preservation of
string instrument known as the
In Catholicism and the Yoruba
Gershwin borrowed a few bars
expressive, outgoing music
from its "Échale salsita" (the
produced by a variety of
origin of the word salsa, today
percussion instruments, flutes,
used to describe popular music
fiddles and lutes recalls the
of Cuban origin) and re-used
music of southern China. As
them in his Cuban Overture.
complex and refined as Viet Nam
These racy songs packed with
itself, a country which is today
wordplay and metaphors about
beginning to reveal its long-
food and love
hidden splendours to tourists
indispensable commodities for
and film-goers, hat cheo takes us
Into an enchanted world of
Latin rhythms.
the two
still delight lovers of
the tradition of kagura, Shinto
cuatro, the guitar, and
ceremonial music. In addition to
sometimes the trumpet. While
Its main instruments, miya-taiko
Puerto Rican salsa has a
drums, the ensemble uses
worldwide following, jibara music
bamboo flutes, conch-shells,
Is less well known. This recording
wooden idiophones, and various
gives us an opportunity to savour
other kinds of drum. An
its rough charm and the
enthralling, majestic sound on
melodious voice of Ramito with
the epic scale of a Kurosawa
its occasional Mexican
El cantor de la Montaña
Vol. 1 CD Ansonia HGCD-1237
Ramito is the pseudonym of
Don Azpiazu and the Havana
Flor Morales Ramos, one of the
Casino Orchestra
CD MM 30911
Japan. O-Suwa Daiko Drums
most famous performers of
Kurdish Music
Musics and Musicians of the
Puerto Rican jibara folk music,
Musics and Musicians of the
World series
whose forms Include the
Azpiazu led one of the first
CD Unesco D 8030
aguinaldo and the seis, inherited
orchestras to introduce a Cuban
In the late 1920s, Don
from the Spanish tradition; the
repertoire into the hotels and
which are associated with Shinto
Creole plena, which originated at
casinos of Havana, which had
to the same family as Persian
rites and the medieval military
the beginning of the century at
previously been dominated by
music, is part of the great current
music of Japan, are much less
Ponce on the south coast of
American music. It was Azpiazu
of modal music which originated
well known than the traditional
Puerto Rico; and other rhythms
who took to the United States
in India and spread as far as
court music of Japan, gagaku, or
such as the bolero, an Import
the famous "El manisero" ("The
Andalusia. Descendants of the
the music of No or Kabuki
from Cuba, and the poro and the
Peanut Vendor"), which In the
legendary Medes, the Kurds have
theatre. The O-Suwa ensemble,
llanera, which came from other
Thirties started a tremendous
remained stubbornly attached to
from the valley of Suwa in the
Latin American cultures. Here it
craze for the rumba and for
life In the high mountains and
Shinano region, west of Tokyo, is
is accompanied by traditional
Cuban rhythms in general. Here
now struggle to survive in
directed by Oguchl Daihachi,
Puerto Rican instruments such
he plays the great classics of
CD Unesco D 8023
Kurdish music, which belongs
The rhythms of daiko drums,
Hidalgo on the conga for
"Homegrown" and two rising
young jazzmen
Vincent Herring,
who played in the New York
streets before he was
discovered, and Ralph Moore,
who is currently playing with
Walton's group. On "God Bless
the Child" Walton shows what an
attentive accompanist he can be,
filling in gaps in the melody with
luxuriant successions of chords.
On "Homegrown" he shows how
he has assimilated Latin
rhythms. Refreshingly exuberant
Ella Fitzgerald sings the Duke
Ellington song book
Verve 3 CDs 837 035-2
This recording is one of the
series of song books produced
by Norman Granz in the 1950s
and 1960s which helped to
create the Ella Fitzgerald legend.'
Here Ella, accompanied by Duke
Ellington, is at the top of her
form. Her voice has a velvety
fullness and sweetness that
unfortunately had gone several
years later. If Ella is world
famous as a scat singer, she
preferred to sing ballads and
here it is the ballads
Dream", "Lost in Meditation" and
laughter masks tears and
sung by the peerless Antonio
disparagement covers up the
and Billy Strayhom's "Midriff".
frustration of being rejected by
The arrangements are vigorous
rich vibrato and improvises with
white society and the difficulty of
and swinging, with the general
great tenderness. A real
ruñidera" ("Wanna lot o' love"),
accepting oneself. And yet In the
sense of precision typical of the
"Lamento Borinqueño", a song
earliest blues the guitar often
Ellington band. A consummate
written on an East Harlem
conjures up the same rural
alchemist of jazz, the Duke
sidewalk by the Puerto Rican
atmosphere as it does In certain
always chooses the right note,
Rafael Hernández during a bout
Puerto Rican tunes. The copious
and his felicitous
Arturo Sandoval (trumpet,
of nostalgia for his Island, "La
notes that accompany this CD
accompaniment gives the band a
flugelhorn), Kenny Kirkland
cachimba de San Juan", "El
tell the story of the blues and
surprising elasticity. The
(piano), Charnett Moffett (bass),
Kenny Washington (drums), Ernie
that great ambassador
of Cuban music in Europe, "La
like Ellington's "Kinda Dukish"
moving. Ben Webster provides an
extension to Ella's voice with his
Arturo Sandoval. / Remember
panquelero", "Chivo que rompe
provide biographical information
composer Edgard Várese, with
tambo" and other lovely tunes
about some otherwise obscure
whom Charlie Parker wanted to
Watts, David Sanchez, Ed Calle
that set feet tapping in pre-war
bluesmen. If musicians like
study shortly before his death,
(tenor saxophone), Felix Gomez
dance halls and which Cubans
Victoria Splvey, Champion Jack
described the symphony
still love to hum today.
Dupree and Brownie McGhee are
orchestra as "a hydropic
CD GRP 96682
today in the blues pantheon,
elephant" and the jazz orchestra
then Buddy Moss, Merline
as "a roaring tiger". Perhaps he
Arturo Sandoval, here with the
Johnson and Lucille Bogan
had been listening to Ellington.
backing of Wynton Marsalls's old
deserve a place there too.
Volume 2 CD Columbia 468770 2
The Cuban trumpet-player
rhythm section and three terrific
Freddie Hubbard. Bolivia
saxophonists, pays tribute to one
Duke Ellington and His
CD Limelight 820 837-2
of his masters, Clifford Brown,
Legends of the Blues
Orchestra. Piano in the
Hubbard (trumpet, flugelhorn),
who died young in a car accident.
tones of Puerto Rico, this
Cedar Walton (piano), Billy
The standards
magnificent anthology of blues is
CD Sony Jazz COL 4684042
Higgins (drums), David Williams
Spring", "Cherokee" and
A far cry from the bucolic
"Daahoud", "Joy
(bass), Ralph Moore (tenor and
"Parisian Thoroughfare"
turns sarcastic, lusty, humorous
roles of composer and band¬
soprano saxophone), Vincent
richly harmonized. Watts
and despairing. The frankly
leader, but this series of
Herring (alto and soprano
improvises superbly on "Jordu"
sexual "She shook her gin",
recordings made in Hollywood in
saxophone), Giovanni Hidalgo
and a patent delight in playing
"Cold Blooded MurderNo 2",
1960 shows his prodigious talent
"Take it easy greazy" and "Down
as a pianist. It includes some of
a collection of songs that are by
that are the most
Cuban music: "El manisero"
Ellington often stuck to the
This excellent CD was made
in the Slums" express the
the great classics such as "Take
in 1990 with Cedar Walton and
vitality, verve and tragedy of Afro-
the 'A' Train" and "Perdido" as
his usual rhythm section plus the
American culture, in which
well as rarely played numbers
Puerto Rican prodigy Giovanni
bursts out from every track. One
of the most delightful jazz
records of the year.
Isabelle Leymarie
45th YEAR
of the next issue:
Published monthly in 33 languages and in Braille by Unesco, The
United Nations Educational. Scientific and Cultural Organization.
31. rue François Bonvin. 75015 Paris, France.
(October 1992)
Director: Bahgat Ehadi
Editor-in-chief: Adel Rifaat
Managing Editor: Gillian Whitcomb
English edition: Roy Malk n
French edition: Alain Lévêque, Neda El Khazen
Spanish edition: Miguel Labarca. Araceli Ortiz de Urbina
Art Unit/Production: Georges Servat
Illustrations: Ariane Bailey (Tel.
Documentation: Violette Ringelstein (Tel.
Liaison with non-Headquarters editions and press:
Solange Belin (Tel.
Secretariat: Annie Brechet (Tel., Mouna Chatta
Administrative Assistant: Prithi Perera
Selection in Braille in English, French, Spanish and Korean:
Marie-Dominique Bourgeals (45 68 46 92)
Russian: Alexander Melnnov (Moscow)
German: Werner Merkli (Berne)
Arabic: El-Sad Mahmoud El-Sheniti (Cairo;
Italian: Mario Guidottl (Rome)
Hindi: Ganga Prasad Vimal (Ce hi)
Tamil: M, Mohammed Mustafa (Madras)
Persian: H. Sadough Vanmi (Teheran)
Dutch: Daul Morren (Antwerp)
Portuguese: Benedicto Silva (Rio de Janeiro)
Turkish: Mefra llgazer (Istanbul)
Urdu: Wall Mohammad Zakl (Islamabad)
Catalan: Joan Carreras I Marti (Barcelona)
Malaysian: Azizah Hamzah (Kuala Lumpur)
Korean: Yi Tcng-ok :Seou:)
Swahili: Leorard J. Shuma (Dar-es-Salaam)
Slovene: Aleksand'3 Kornhauser (Ljubljana)
Chinese: Shen Guofen (Beijing)
Bulgarian: Dragomr Petrov (So'ia)
Greek: Nicolas Papageorgiou (Athens)
Slnhala: S.J. Sumanasekera Banda (Colombo)
Finnish: Marietta Oksanen (He sinki)
Basque: Gurutz Larrañaga (San Sebastian)
Vietnamese: Do Phuong (Hanoi)
Pashto: Ghoti Khaweri (Kabul;
Hausa: Habib Alhassan (Sokoto)
Bangla: Abdullah A.M. Snarafuddln (Dhaka)
Ukrainian: Victor Stelmakh (Kiev)
Czech and Slovak: Milan Syrucek (Prague)
Galician: Xabier Senin Fe-nândez (Santiago de Compostela)
Subscriptions: Marie-Thé'èse Hardy (Tel.,
Jocelyne Despouy, Alpha Dlakité, Jacqueline Louise-Julie,
Viinichan Ngonekeo, Micnel Ravassard, Michelle Robillard,
Mohamed Salah El Din, Sylvie Van Rijsewijk,
Ricardo Zamora Pe-ez
Customer service: Gine::e Motreff (Tel.
Accounts: (Tel.
Mail: Martia Amegee (Te .
Shipping: Hector (Jarcia Sandoval (Tel.
SUBSCRIPTIONS. Te : 45 68 45 65
1 year: 211 French francs. 2 years: 396 FF.
Binder for one year's issues: 72 FF
Developing countries:
1 year: 132 French francs. 2 years: 211 FF.
Payment can be made w th any convertible currency to the
order of Unesco
Individual articles and photographs not copyrighted may Pe reprinted
p-oviding the credit line reads "Repr.nted from the Unesco Courier".
p us date of issue, and three vojcher copies are sent to the editor.
Signed articles renrnted must bear author's name. Non-copyright
cnotos wiil be suppl ed on request. Unsolicited manuscripts cannot
be returned unless accompanied by an international repty coupon
covering postage. Signed articles express the opinions of tne authors
and do not necessar ly represent the opinions of Utesco or those of
the editors of the Unesco Courier. PhotD captions and headlines are
w-itten by the Unesco Courier star1. The boundaries on maps
published in the magazine do not Imply official endo'sement or
acceptance by Unesco or the'Lrited Nations. The Unesco Courier ¡s
P'Oduced in m croform (micofilm and/or microfiche) by: (1) U\ESco, 7
Place de Fontenoy. 74700 Pans: (2) University Microfilms iXerox).
Ann Arbor, M chigar 48100 U.S.A.; (3) N.C.R. Microcard Edition,
Indian Head Inc.. Ill West 40th Street. New York, U.S.A.; (4) Bell
ana Howell Co.. Old Mansfield Road, Wooste- Ohio 44691, U.S.A.
IMPRIMÉ EN FRANCE (Printed In France)
Photocomposition: Le Cou- er de 'Unesco.
Photogravure- mpression: t/aury-imprimeur S.A.,
Z.I., route d'Etampes. 45330 Ma'ssneroes.
ISSN 0304-3118
N= 9-1992-OPI-92-507 A
Tn s issue comprises 52 pages and a 4-page insert between pages
10-11 and 42-43.
Cover, page 3: © Roger-Viollet, Paris, Musée de Tours. Back cover, pages 12, 13, 16:
© Roland & Sabrina Michaud, Paris. Page 2: UNESCO/Armelle Le Louët. Pages 4-5:
© Agence de presse Bernand, Paris. Page 7: © Jean-Loup Sief, Paris. Pages 9, 17, 41:
©Jean-Loup Charmet, Paris. Pages 10-11: © Varga/Artephot, Paris. Page 11: Johannes
Laurentius © Antikenmuseum, Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin.
Page 14: © Lauros-Giraudon, Château de Versailles. Page 15: © Giraudon, Paris. Page
18: Percheron © Artephot, Paris. Page 19: © Edimedia, Snark International, Paris,
Randers Museum, Denmark. Page 20: © Giraudon, Paris, Wolfenbüttel Library. Page
21: © Judy de Bustamante, Colegio Militar Eloy Alfaro, Quito. Page 22: ©
Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. Page 23: © Monique Pietri, Paris. Page 24 (above):
Lewis © Rapho, Paris. Page 24 (below): © WWF International/World Organization of
the Scout Movement. Page 25 (above): Klemm © Jacana, Paris. Page 25 (below):
UNESCO/N. Tornudd. Page 26: UNESCO/Andes/Czaz. Pages 26-27: UNESCO/
IUCN/J. Thorsell. Page 28: © Maurice Huser, Fotogram-Stone, Paris. Page 29: ©
Cherville, Fotogram-Stone, Paris. Page 30: © Giraudon, Paris. Page 31: Berretty ©
Rapho, Paris. Pages 32-33: Rachid Melloul © Sygma, Paris. Page 32: Niépce © Rapho,
Paris. Page 35: © National Ethnological Museum, Leyden. Pages 36, 39: © Claude
Sauvageot, Paris. Page 37: Richard Frieman © Rapho, Paris. Page 38: Donnezan ©
Rapho, Paris. Page 40: Michel Baret © Rapho, Paris. Pages 42-43: UNESCO/J. CaroGardiner. Page 44: UNESCO/Dominique Roger. Pages 46-47: UNESCO/Georges Servat.
Page 48 (above): © Jean-Loup Charmet, Bibliothèque du Conservatoire des Arts et
Métiers, Paris. Page 48 (below): C. Kempf © Musée Bartholdi, Colmar.
Fly UP