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The 40 Annual - UNIS-UN
th
The 40 Annual
UNIS-UN INTERNATIONAL STUDENT CONFERENCE
WORKING PAPER
Media’s Influence:
Opinions, Activism, and Outcomes
th
The 40 Annual
UNIS-UN INTERNATIONAL STUDENT CONFERENCE WORKING PAPER
Media’s Influence | Opinions, Activism, and Outcomes
A Letter from the Co-Chairs
Dear Participant,
We’d just like to take this moment to thank you for coming to this year’s
conference, and to reintroduce ourselves and the rest of the UNIS-UN organizing
and executive committees. Ms. Sylvia Gordon founded UNIS-UN in 1976 at the
United Nations International School. She wanted to create event in which her
students and visiting students could meet to discuss pertinent world issues. Over
the years, UNIS-UN has evolved into the largest student-run conference held in
the United Nations General Assembly, with over 500 students attending from 5
continents. Every year we begin planning in April by interviewing and selecting the
Executive Committee. This is the core planning body for the conference. We are
divided into 6 commissions: Editing Commission; Public Relations, Finance, and
Logistics (PFL) Commission; Ushering Commission; Visiting Schools Commission;
Speakers Commission; and Technology Commission. Together we work with the
over 100 UNIS students who make up the Organizing Committee to plan all
aspects of the conference, from website design to social media presence to
speaker and participant invitations and more. We’ve worked hard to plan a
marvelous experience for you, and we are so excited to welcome you to our city.
Here’s to a Wonderful Conference!
Sincerely,
Sahil Patel and Sean Waxman-Lenz
2
Letter from the Editor:
In Memoriam of Sylvia Gordon
In 1977, eighteen UNIS students committed themselves to creating the first
UNIS-UN conference, a unique opportunity for them to address world issues by
virtue of the fact that they were UN students. Forty years later the UNIS-UN
conference is now the largest student run program of its kind. The original
eighteen students and those who followed benefited from the support and
guidance of Ms. Sylvia Gordon, a UNIS humanities teacher who lead the students
in developing this program over a period of fifteen years. At a UNIS reception in
the summer of 2015 Ms. Gordon acknowledged that is was a “terrible struggle” to
organize and present the idea to the UN. The UN was skeptical of the student’s
ability to create a meaningful program to be held at the General Assembly.
Consequently, this made it very difficult for Ms. Gordon to promote this initiative.
She addressed the struggles of the first years in a very calm, quiet voice,
which demonstrated her ability to remain level headed and confident during a
seemingly hopeless process. She emphasized the importance of student
participation during the two-day conference. Ms. Gordon wanted students to feel
comfortable questioning the speakers in their area of expertise. “It should be a
student thing. Not something that is imposed from above, but something that
bubbles up from the bottom”.
As we celebrate the 40th anniversary of the UNIS-UN conference, we
remember and honor Sylvia Gordon’s herculean efforts in making the student run
conference a reality. In the past several years we have looked at the power of
youth in global development and media. While it is important to examine our role
in these issues, we must not forget the efforts of those who have preceded us. It
was Sylvia Gordon who wanted students to explore their power within society.
This year, eight hundred students will gather to address media’s influence in our
world. We will grapple with different ideas of media, challenge one another on our
perceptions, and broaden our understanding through the varying perspective of
the speakers. It is because of the hard work of Ms. Gordon that we are able to sit
in the General Assembly today. During the course of these two days I hope that
you will take a moment to reflect upon her efforts and intentions.
Sarah Blau
Editor of the UNIS-UN Working Paper
3
Table of Contents
Foreword
5
Speaker Bios
6
Open Dialogue
10
Articles
13
Puzzles
22
Article Translations – Chinese
26
Article Translations – Spanish
33
Afterword
43
Works Cited
44
Contributors
47
Acknowledgements
48
4
Foreword
In the last ten years, we have seen a revolutionary change in the media
landscape. Not only in how it is consumed, but also its growing influence on how
we think and act. Over 60% of millennials get their news from the Internet and
over 50% of millennials share key news alerts with their friends over social
platforms. The days of having major television networks or leading newspapers
shape opinion and influence how we think and behave are long over. In 2015,
there were more than 4 billion videos viewed on YouTube. Facebook had 1.6
billion active users each month and the New York Times had more articles read
digitally than by their hard copies. We saw the impact of how media can influence
through various forms of activism – from Black Lives Matter – to unexpected rise
of Donald Trump as a leading presidential candidate.
People keep saying that media is dead. The truth is that it is alive and
growing – it is now digested differently, on phones and laptops rather than on
television, radio, magazines and newspapers. We see that media is no longer
about just reporting the news but as a platform that can birth movements and
influence large groups of people.
At this year's UNIS-UN conference – Media's Influence: Opinions, Activism,
and Outcomes – we will have the unique opportunity to hear from speakers from
the companies that are both redefining the evolution of media. This year, you will
hear speakers from the companies who are leading this media revolution. Suroosh
Alvi, co-founder from Vice News and Casey Neistat, a YouTuber and filmmaker,
will spearhead our discussions on media’s effect on perspective, actions and
effects on a global scale. These speakers and their companies are the ones
responsible for influencing the news we hear and even more importantly how we
hear and read it. Journalists, editors as well as media strategists, leading
YouTubers and agency communication leaders all detailing the latest regarding
the continued revolution of media and the growing impact it is having in terms of
influencing opinions and motivating new levels of activism and in the case of the
upcoming 2016 election even affect presidential outcome.
5
Speaker Bios
Paloma Escudero was appointed as
Director of Communications of UNICEF in April
of 2013. Bringing her extensive experience
and expertise in the areas of communications,
fundraising, advocacy and brand
management, she oversees UNICEF's global
public outreach and communications as its
senior communication official. Prior to the
appointment, Ms. Escudero had already been
well known among the UNICEF family as
Executive Director of the Spanish National
Committee. Under her management between
2007 and 2013, the Committee was
transformed into a highly efficient organization, increasing its contribution to
UNICEF's programmes in more than 150 developing countries and contributing
significantly to emergencies such as the Haiti earthquake. Escudero started her
professional career, which spans more than two decades, in Procter & Gamble
Spain in 1989, where she was Brand Manager and oversaw the marketing teams
responsible for the brand repositioning of products. After a sabbatical year during
which she travelled around the world with her husband and worked as an aid
worker in Guatemala, Escudero joined Oxfam in 1997, and became the Director of
the Oxfam International Advocacy office for the European Union in 2000. First
based in Spain and later in Brussels, She worked on issues such as Overseas
Development Aid, external debt, humanitarian law, international agriculture and
trade, and climate change. Escudero holds a Bachelor's degree in Economics and
Business Sciences from ICADE – Universidad Pontificia Comillas in Madrid – and
obtained an Erasmus grant to specialize in marketing at ESSEC business school in
Paris.
Casey Owen Neistat is an American
film director, producer, designer, creator of
popular YouTube videos, and
entrepreneur. Neistat was born in New
London, Connecticut, but moved to New
York City in 2001. Shortly after the move,
Neistat and his brother Van began working
with the artist Tom Sachs to create a film
series featuring the artist's sculptures and
installations. This was the brothers’ earliest
collaborative work. Neistat gained
recognition for his three-minute film titled iPod’s Dirty Secret, where he criticized
6
Apple's lack of a battery replacement program for the iPod. The video garnered
over a million views within its first week of publication. In 2004, Neistat and his
brother created a film series titled Science Experiments, which also gained
considerable attention and popularity. In 2008, HBO picked up an eight-episode
autobiographical television series called the The Neistat Brothers. The series was
created, written and directed by the brothers, and featured short stories about
their lives. Neistat served as the executive producer for the 2008 film The
Pleasure of Being Robbed as well the producer for the 2009 film Daddy Longlegs.
Neistat opened his YouTube account in February of 2010, and has since uploaded
over 240 videos. In his videos, he covers a variety of relevant topics ranging from
social media to public transportation. Recently, he reached one million subscribers
on his channel. In July of 2015, Neistat released his video sharing social media
app, Beme. Since the launch, users have since shared millions of videos.
Susan Chira is an American journalist and current
assistant managing editor for news at the New York
Times. She was raised in Rye, New York and
attended Phillips Academy Andover in Andover,
Massachusetts, where she graduated in 1976. She
received her B.A. degree in history and East Asian
studies from Harvard University in 1980. There, she
eventually became the president of the Harvard
Crimson, the daily student newspaper. Chira joined
The New York Times in 1981. She was the Times 's
correspondent and then bureau chief in Tokyo from
1984 to 1989. She has also been the metropolitan
reporter at bureaus in Albany, New York and
Stamford, Connecticut, national education
correspondent, deputy editor of the Foreign desk, editor of The Week in Review,
and editorial director of book development. After having served as deputy foreign
editor of The Times since February 1997, Chira became the editor of the Week in
Review section in October of 1999. From 2004 to 2011, she was the Times’s
foreign news editor. Finally, in September of 2011, Chira was named to her current
position as assistant managing editor for news at The New York Times.
7
Buzz Bissinger is an acclaimed, award winning
American journalist and author. After graduating from
the University of Pennsylvania in 1972, Bissinger
began his journalism career. It was in 1987, during his
time at The Philadelphia Inquirer, that Bissinger won
the Pulitzer Prize for reporting an investigative series
on corruption in the Philadelphia court system.
A year later, Bissinger moved to Odessa, Texas and
wrote Friday Night Lights (1990), the book for which
he is perhaps best known. The New York Times
number one bestseller that has sold roughly two
million copies documents the impact of high school
football on small-town life and served as the
inspiration to numerous films and TV series. Bissinger
wrote A Prayer for the City (1998), another New York Times bestseller titled Three
Nights in August (2005), Shooting Stars (2009), a sequel to Friday Nights Lights
titled After Friday Night Lights (2012), and a memoir titled Father's Day (2012).
Bissinger has been a contributing editor at Vanity Fair magazine since 1996 as
well as a longtime contributor to The New York Times, Wall Street Journal, and the
Philadelphia Inquirer. In the July 2015 Vanity Fair cover story “Call Me Caitlyn”,
Bissinger exclusively chronicled Bruce Jenner’s gripping transition from Olympic
decathlete to transgender woman, one of the biggest stories in recent years.
Bissinger, his wife, Lisa, and their three sons, divide their time between homes in
Philadelphia and the Pacific Northwest.
Trevor Johnson joined Facebook in April
2008 as one of Facebook's first employees
outside of the US, taking on the role of Head of
Strategy and Planning to help build the EMEA
organization. He then moved to a global role to
help build the APAC and LATAM commercial
operations. In total Trevor assisted in
establishing 14 Facebook offices across the
globe as Facebook expanded its commercial
footprint. Trevor now has a leadership role
within Facebook's Global Agency Development
function, based in New York. This team
manages the strategic global relationships between Facebook and some of its
large media and creative agency partners. Prior to this, Trevor held a series of
senior Marketing and Strategy roles at AOL in Europe and left as the Head of
Insights, EU. Before joining AOL Trevor worked at Ernst and Young, as Business
and Strategy Analyst.
8
Suroosh Alvi is Co Founder of
VICE Media, a critically acclaimed
journalist, and an Executive Producer
of numerous films. Under Alvi’s
guidance, VICE, which initially
launched in 1994 as a punk
magazine, has expanded into a
multimedia network, including the
world’s premier source for original
online video, VICE.COM; an
international network of digital channels; an award winning television & feature
film production studio including the series VICE on HBO, the Sundance Award
winning film Fishing Without Nets and a film partnership with 20th Century Fox; a
magazine; a record label; and a book-publishing division. In February, VICE is set
to launch VICELAND, VICE’s first 24­hour television channel, in both the U.S and
Canada featuring original cultural and lifestyle programming. In recent years, VICE
has been awarded an Emmy for its show VICE on HBO, two Peabody awards, a
PEN Center Award of Honor, a Knight Foundation Award for Innovation in
Journalism, the 2015 LA Press Club Award, the 2014 Sundance Film Festival
Directing Award for Fishing Without Nets, tens of Webby awards, and more.
As a journalist, Alvi has reported from locations including the Democratic Republic
of Congo, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, Rwanda and the Gaza Strip. He is a regular
host of VICE on HBO and contributor to VICE News. Alvi also hosts Terror,
VICELAND’s upcoming series examining terrorism in radical Islamic groups
throughout the world today. For the series, Alvi reported on the ground from Iraq,
Somalia, Nigeria and Pakistan. Prior to co-founding VICE, Alvi attended college at
McGill University in Montreal, where he studied Philosophy. He currently resides in
New York City.
9
Open Dialogue I:
To what extent is the use of social media in advocacy
beneficial or detrimental to society?
PROS
CONS
The ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)
“Ice Bucket Challenge” started off as an
idea in 2014 of nominating people to
give a charitable donation of $100 to
ALS research or upending a bucket of
ice water over their heads.
Russian Anti-Gay propaganda has
directly legalized discrimination
through the Anti-Gay law; supposedly
intended to protect youngsters from
adopting harmful “gay propaganda”.
The ALS “Ice Bucket Challenge”
became an internet phenomenon with
participation from people all around the
world, eventually raising over $100
million dollars for the ALS Association
(ALSA).
The social media campaign in April of
2014 known as #bringbackourgirls
stirred global outrage after 276
schoolgirls were kidnapped from the
Nigerian village of Chibok by the
Islamic terrorist group Boko Haram.
This hashtag raised global awareness
and was aimed at the Nigerian
government, as they did not take
systematic measure against Boko
Haram: it was mentioned through
various social media platforms over one
million times between April and May of
2014.
The Arab Spring was a revolution of
anti-governmental protests in the
Middle East and North Africa
demanding democracy.
10
This law grants homophobes the right
to assert violence towards
homosexuals, believing that they
matter less to the Russian Government.
ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham)
asserted dominance over social media
through a Twitter technique known as
“Fajr al-Bashaer” or, “Dawn of Good
Tidings”: The app requests personal
information and data from the user and
sends consumers updates and news
on ISIS combats.
Propaganda operatives working under
ISIS post thousands of videos on
YouTube showing torture, murder,
attacks and suicide missions.
Cyberbullying occurs when a person
humiliated or harassed by another
person through the internet, digital
technologies or mobile phones.
In 2014, 25% of teens explained that
they experienced some form of
repeated bullying via the internet or
cellphone.
Arab Spring was mentioned throughout
social media. During the Tehran
protest, Americans could see the
protests and support the protesters
through posting with the hashtag
#arabspring on Instagram, Twitter and
Facebook.
95% of teens who witnessed
cyberbullying on social media reported
that they ignored the behavior.
Of the young people who reported
incidents against them, they stated the
bullies used online threats.
Cyberbullying can have extreme
psychological impacts on a young
person. This can hinder emotional
development and academic
progression.
Notes
11
Open Dialogue II:
Independent or corporate media: which is more
effective?
PROS
CONS
Independent media is more accessible,
allowing anyone with access to the
internet to share and interact within the
online community.
Stories and news covered by
independent media tend to last very
short periods of time, since most of
what goes on in the online community
is spontaneous.
Free from the control of corporations,
independent media enables the
documentation of news to be live and
spread quickly worldwide.
Independent media incorporates all
emotions and experiences of those
involved the event, instead of the
traditional fact based news in corporate
media.
The information provided through
independent media is not subject to
censorship, which gives the public
more freedom to openly discuss and
share news.
Consequently, independent media
enables activists to reach and connect
with a broad global audience in order to
expand upon social and political
movements.
Corporate media ensures that facts
presented are verified claims and that
the news contains the most crucial
information in understanding events.
12
When a reader relies solely on popular
social media sites for news, they will
receive unverified facts that can be
misunderstood.
Corporate media is limited in that it
sometimes produces news bites that
pander to point of view of the
audience, so that they can maintain
their advertising dollars.
Corporate media is not always
investigative reporting, but rather
personal opinion
Social Media as a Tool For Global Activism
Preye Jituboh
In the last ten years, social media has become a mainstream outlet for
communication. It consists of websites and applications that enable users to
create and share content or to participate in social networking (Khan-Ibarra). While
social media sites have disadvantages, the advantageous aspects seem to
outweigh the drawbacks. In many countries, sites such as Twitter and Facebook
allow people to circumvent government censorship. In addition, social media sites
allow journalists to elude the normal editorial processes and, instead, report
through social media. The journalist can publish unfiltered news, which is
necessary in order to formulate well-supported opinions. Activists use social
media to communicate their cause to a broad, hopefully receptive audience. The
development of activist movements through social media is particularly evident
in #BringBackOurGirls Campaign as well as the #PrayforParis Campaign, that
gained global recognition in 2014 and 2015.
On April 15th, 2014, the Nigerian extremist group Boko Haram captured 200 girls
from their boarding school in the local government region Chibok, Nigeria. When
the massive kidnapping first occurred, many civilians protested, but they received
little recognition. Women, men, and children marched to the capital, Abuja, urging
bureaucratic and military action and even searched through forests themselves.
Nevertheless, the government continued to neglect their demands and protests.
On April 23rd, Oby Ezekwesili, vice president of the World Bank for Africa, gave a
speech in Nigeria commanding the government to take action to ‘bring back our
girls’. Matt Collins of The Guardian wrote, “The call was echoed by tweeters in
Nigeria using the #BringBackOurGirls hashtag, which has gone on to be used in
over one million tweets worldwide”. Finally, the Nigerian government listened and
a £177,000 ($300,000) cash reward was offered to anyone who was able to locate
or rescue the girls. In addition, President Goodluck Jonathan accepted
international aid from the British Prime Minister, David Cameron, and the United
States President, Barack Obama, who both sent special forces to track Boko
Haram. Social media played an instrumental role in forcing the national and
international governments to react to the situation. The rapid development of the
hashtag was no accident; in fact, more than 250,000 people signed the petition
calling on the Nigerian government to take action. A high number of hashtag
tweets are direct results of a semi-coordinated campaign to make world leaders
and the media aware of this situation. (Ries, Brian). Hundreds of thousands of
people, including the First Lady of the United States, Michelle Obama, posted
pictures on Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter of themselves holding a piece of
paper with the hashtag written on it. Social media makes it so easy to access
information and ask questions like, “What is going on?” and “Why is nothing being
done?”; this pressures local and international leaders to recognize the issue.
When millions of people are fighting for a cause, it is almost impossible for
13
democratic nations to neglect their activity. In the case of Nigeria, if people had
not protested or used the media to voice their outrage, presumably, little to no
action would have been taken.
Xavier J. Peg for Flickr
In November, another terrorist group attacked a nation far from Nigeria. On the
evening of November 13th, 2015, a series of coordinated attacks took place
throughout Paris and its northern suburb, Saint-Denis. First, three suicide bombers
struck near the Stade de France in Saint-Denis, which was followed by other
suicide bombings and mass shootings at restaurants, cafes, and the Bataclan
Concert Hall. The damage was severe: 368 people injured and 130 people killed
including 89 at the Bataclan where victims were taken hostage; seven of the
attackers were also killed. The attacks were viewed as the deadliest on France
since World War II; France was already vulnerable because of the January 2015
attack on the satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo. The Islamic State of Iraq and the
Levant (ISIL), claimed responsibility for the November attack, saying it was
retribution for the French airstrikes on ISIL territories in Syria and Iraq. The world’s
response to the tragedy was that of shock, sorrow, and solidarity. In the 24 hours
following the attacks that claimed the lives of 130 Parisians, over 70 million people
took to Instagram to share their support and prayers for the French capital
(Laurent, Olivier C). “In total 430 million interactions–that posts, likes and
comments–were created in these first 24 hours, with people in more than 200
countries participating,” wrote a news reporter at TIMES. Along with the
14
#PrayforParis, #PeaceforParis and #JeSuisCharlie hashtags that surfaced, Jean
Julien’s “Peace for Paris” logo became a symbol of support for the rattled country.
People received information directly from first-hand survivors; primary experiences
were told and shared through Twitter and Facebook. The first hand accounts gave
the readers a searing, truthful representation of the tragedy.
The #BringBackOurGirls and #PrayForParis campaigns demonstrate social
media’s ability to promote change and raise awareness on local and international
levels. Campagins such as these enable non-state actors to initiate change within
their respective governments and it provides the global community with
immediate access to valuable information.
15
Arab Spring: A Revolution Against Tyranny
Matthias Toomel
The Arab Spring was a series of uprisings and protests against the autocratic
governments of several North African and Middle Eastern nations. The movement
began on December 18th, 2010 in Tunisia. A policewoman approached a young
man named Mohammed Bouazizi and confiscated his unlicensed vegetable cart.
The policewoman then proceeded to spit in his face and insult his dead father.
Bouazizi went to complain to local municipality officials, but they refused to see
him. Later that day he proceeded to pour fuel on himself and set himself on fire.
His actions sparked tremendous national outcry. President Zine el Abidine Ben Ali
went to visit Bouazizi in attempt to temper the anger. He was wildly unsuccessful,
as the reactions could not be suppressed. 10 days after Bouazizi’s death President
Ali was overthrown after 23 years. Civilians could no longer withstand the severe
political oppression and this event incited the unification of civilians against the
government.
The many revolutions that followed were composed of both violent and nonviolent
protests against the current state of affairs and the many political regimes in the
Arab League. While some of the revolutions ended conclusively in favor of either
the government or anti-government protesters around 2012, there are still
ongoing civil wars in a few nations, notably Syria. The reality is that the Middle
East is still in a state of flux and many of the key countries impacted have seen
their power in the region dramatically lessened with countries like Iran benefiting
most due to the destabilization of its neighbors.
The purpose of these revolutions was mainly to overthrow the rulers of the corrupt
dictatorships that were governing these nations. Along with accusations of
corruption within these regimes, protesters voiced complaints about rigged
elections, brutality, unemployment, and a general lack of social justice.
Success was seen in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen, with the overthrowing of
corrupt leaders such as Muammar Gaddafi and Hosni Mubarak. However, this was
only temporary for most of the aforementioned nations, as newly elected
government leaders were unable to preserve the integrity of the nascent
democratic states, apart from in Tunisia. Conflict continues today following the
collapse of interim governments in Libya and Yemen, while Egypt is currently
headed by military leader Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, who was elected into office in 2014
after a military-led coup d’état overthrowing Morsi in the previous year.
The majority of the protests ended inconclusively in nations where uprisings were
unsuccessful in overthrowing the government. However, they did result in some
governmental changes regarding the restructuring of cabinet members and laws.
16
Major ongoing conflicts are still present in Libya, Syria, and Iraq, which are all part
of the aftermath of the Arab Spring, generally referred to as the Arab Winter.
There have been more than 300,000 deaths as a result of the Arab Spring and
winter, with the majority (over 80%) occurring during the course of the Syrian Civil
War. Although most of the uprisings were not completely successful in achieving
all their goals, they still left the population of the Arab League with some positive
aftereffects. Despite the ongoing strife and continued terror attacks in several
nations, the Arab Spring left people with a sense of hope, and the belief that they
had the ability to instill change in their nations through social media, protests, in
addition to finally having a voice that expressed their oppression.
Amine Grhabi for Flickr
The role of media and its impact on the Arab Spring is a fascinating case study.
Western media allowed those involved to share their experiences and offered a
form of communication. This was revolutionary as media outlets were unavailable
in the past. For dissident groups in countries like Saudi Arabia, social media united
remote and often disparate groups and provided them with channels to bypass
the conventional media. These channels, which were typically, state controlled
and unwilling to broadcast any news of civil unrest and oppositional government
action. It was often the only way for civilians to share their experiences with
Western journalists. Satellite TV also played a significant role, most importantly in
areas where many of the disenfranchised could not read, write or access the
Internet.
The idea of the movement was to empower the citizens to gain control over
oppressive regimes. Many nations still struggle with the impacts of corruption and
discrimination. According to a TIME article Tunis are already exemplifying
frustration with the new regime. In the article, one Tuni states that “qualifications
mean nothing. It's all about who you know... Now, we expect things to change. I
want my freedom and my rights. I want to work. I want a job.” While it may seem
that the protests have quieted since 2009, perhaps the lack of change will
continue to fuel the civilians’ upheaval throughout the Arab League.
17
Businesses Manipulate Consumers Using Media
Anya Patel
Within the last decade social media has developed into a promotional platform
upon which companies can engage with various target audiences. Social media is
an interactive instrument, in that it allows for instantaneous communication
between the company and the consumer.
Mark Smicklas for Flickr
The number of social media users is rapidly increasing. It is estimated that the
number of users will increase to 2.13 billion in 2016. That is approximately one
third of the world’s population. Businesses prefer to use social media as a primary
form of advertising because it is easy access to a wide audience. This presents a
monumental opportunity for businesses to promote their cause.
Social media has a wide range of audiences, ranging from teenagers to adults of
all ages. Every product appeals to a certain target audience. Businesses use
18
different forms of social media to promote and spread their idea or product. Most
corporate style businesses primarily utilize Linkedin.
It is the most popular form of social media for working professionals to network
and search for jobs. The retail market, however, may use networks like Twitter,
Instagram, Snapchat, or Facebook. These platforms are designed for but not
limited to younger audiences who are easily attracted by consumerism.
Social media users are often unaware of the fact that any activity on social media
(Instagram, Twitter, or Facebook) is shared with both their followers and any
business that can be associated with its content. These businesses use methods
like Search Engine Optimization (SEO) to locate keywords that can then translate
to advertisements that appeal to your interests and needs. This is an effective
advertising method known as “retargeting”. This enables companies to locate and
attract the people who are most likely to respond. This allows for an increase in
profit through manipulation of the consumer using social media. A user who posts
a comment to her friends on Facebook about the frizziness of her hair, for
example, is then going to receive a plethora of advertisements relating to hair
products.
Social media provides accessible information regarding the latest trends; who is
wearing what, who is eating what, and who is using what. On Instagram, Kendall
Jenner has over 44 million followers (as of December 2015), so her marketing
impact is huge for the businesses she represents.
Businesses often use iconic hashtags relating to their product or idea to gain
followers. Hashtags congregate groups of people who are interested in the same
product. #Shoes on Instagram has over 40 million posts and continues to
increase. In turn, it has created a secondary market for individuals to sell their
product. “Hashtagging” a picture is an effortless way to inform people of your
brand or idea.
Social media is now engrained into our everyday lives. We use the Internet at a
constant, which makes social media an easy advertising platform as it ensures
viewership. Businesses use social media as an instrument to influence or develop
a specific audience. Without consumers or followers a business cannot advance.
Thus, social media is a powerful networking and marketing tool that is very
attainable and comprehensible.
19
YouTube: A Universal Source
Renaut Abazov
In 2005, three Paypal employees founded what is now the world’s most popular
video sharing site, YouTube. On October 9, 2006 Google announced that it would
buy YouTube for 1.65 billion dollars. Now, millions of people watch videos on the
site every day and some videos have been viewed more than one billion times.
With this degree of popularity it is not surprising that YouTube’s success has
exceeded that of Internet.
The site is now used for a variety of different purposes ranging from global issues
to makeup tutorials. One of the most infamous videos was Kony 2012, which
currently has over 100 million views. When the clip was first released it was a
social media phenomenon. Many people supported the cause and donated
money to the charity highlighted in the video, Invisible Children. The purpose of
the video was to exploit guerilla war leader in Uganda, Joseph Kony. Within 6
days 3.7 million people pledged to support the efforts to arrest Kony. Later that
year, the organization was accused of fabrication and inaccuracy. The co-founder
of Invisible Children was detained in California after being charged with public
masturbation. Since the video, Kony has not been arrested though there were
military actions against him. The charity Invisible Children has since dissolved;
nonetheless, it remains a brilliant example of social media’s power to attract an
international audience. This scandal sparked a global response and many began
to question YouTube’s reliability.
This is not to say, however, that YouTube has not acted as a tool for effective
global activism. The Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Association (ALSA) started a
campaign in the summer of 2015 to raise money for research, while educating the
global community on the fatal disease commonly known as ALS. Unlike Invisible
Children, ALSA is established and well respected. On the website Charity
Navigator, it was given 4 out of 4 stars for financial accountability and overall
transparency. The campaign consisted of an “Ice Bucket Challenge.” People
nominated one another with a video in which the challenger pours a bucket of ice
water on himself and the selects three nominees. Once nominated, you must
complete the challenge, nominate three more people and donate a sum of money,
or refuse the challenge and donate $100 to ALSA. Many participants posted their
challenge videos on YouTube, which allowed for global viewership. Through this
campaign ALSA raised over 114 million USD, a dramatic increase from their
previous donation revenue of about 20 million dollars. Since the campaign began,
researchers at John Hopkins University have made great progress in that they
have identified the protein that fails in the cells of those who suffer from the
disease. YouTube has the potential to transform an idea into a mass movement,
which can result in major scientific advancements.
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Casey Neistat has over 1 million subscribers on Youtube. His videos and ‘vlogs’
depict his voyages to countries across the globe and he explores thought
provoking concepts in a creative format. While his videos are comic and engaging,
they have a deeper underlying message. In his video, ‘Make It Count’, he travels
to as many different countries as possible in a period of ten days. The video
showcases tidbits of his experiences in each country. His objective is not to be
boastful, but rather to convey a message that highlights the importance of global
consciousness. Throughout the video he inserts quotes that promote new
experiences and ‘living in the moment’. Neistat is unique to other YouTubers in
that demonstrate the value in routine experiences, which forces viewers to
evaluate their own lives from this insightful perspective. While Youtube has been
used as a vehicle for corruption in the past, it can also act as a catalyst for global
interaction and discovery. Youtube provides instantaneous access to information
that may have taken years to discover in the past.
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Word Search
22
Crossword Puzzle
Across
6. 219 girls were captured by extremist group Boko Haram in 2012
11. There’s an ___ for that
12. Eric Garner, Michael Brown, Sandra Bland, Tamir Rice
14. Popular form of corporate media in the US
16. Message up to 140 characters long read by “followers”
17. Video sharing site
Down
1. Slogan for freedom of speech that flooded social media after a mass shooting in the offices of a
French satirical newspaper
2. Search
3. Millions of people approached the media with this hashtag after terrorist attacks in Paris
4. Riot
5. Networking site
7. I nominate…
8. Repeated harm inflicted through the use of computers, cell phones and other electronic devices
9. Fight against global warming
10. #sunset
13. Opposition
15. TV, radio, magazines etc.
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How Traditional Media Caters to Generations
Liam Studer
In the past two decades we have watched the gap between media platforms
widen as a result of the technology boom. Innovators have developed more
practical and creative techniques to deliver major headlines and discoveries on a
global scale. The media has evolved drastically as it is now available in a variety of
forms. Its main purpose still remains, however to deliver a story, whether it is be an
event, invention, technique, epidemic or a catastrophe.
Media can be divided into two main subcategories: traditional and social media.
Traditional media includes conventional forms of advertising media such as the
radio, linear television (cable, satellite) print media, like magazines or newspapers.
Social media includes digital media, websites and applications such as Facebook,
Twitter and BuzzFeed. The Internet gained significant attention in the 1990s as a
result of several commercial marketing developments. Consequently, we are
experiencing a tremendous shift in viewership and demographic (age, ethnicity,
gender, etc.).
Preceding the development of the Internet and the introduction of social
networking sites, traditional media was a source of communication controlled by
corporations and businesses. For this reason, traditional media is said to be more
reliable, as it tends to be filtered and extremely accurate. With the emergence of
social networking sites, the Internet and technological advances, new media has
created a world in which anyone with access to the Internet, computer or a mobile
device can share news. In recent years, new media has become a popular form of
communication for younger generations, due to the fact that new forms of media
are mostly targeted towards the younger generation. However, forms of traditional
media such as newspapers and radio stations have adapted to the changing times
by creating online services.
Although social networking sites and new media are mostly targeted and used by
younger generations, several new forms of communication such as email,
Facebook, and LinkedIn have been adapted by older generations. While new
media is mainly targeted towards the younger generations, it has proven to
appeal to older generations as well. These newly developed forms of
communication are easily accessible and allow internet users aged fifty and older
to participate in the online community, whether it is to reconnect with family,
friends and past associates, or to read news. In addition, there are organizations
such as AARP, Assisted Living Federation of America, and The Setting Priorities
for Retirement Years Foundation, specifically targeted at the older generations
have been promoting the use of social media sources to engage with users of this
specific age group. By actively promoting the use of social networking sites and
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new media, businesses and corporations are encouraging people of all age
groups to participate in the online community.
Jon S for Flickr
As for online media in general, the biggest activity by far is social. An estimated
2.5 hours are spent daily social networking on sites and micro-blogging. This
accounts for about 40%. If we include reading/writing blogs, this rises an
additional 10%. Smartphones have heavily contributed to this trend; mobiles are
30% of the social media consumption, a rise from 22% in 2012. The vast majority
of viewers also often multitask when watching a program, as phones are
convenient and small devices. The youngest generation recorded (aged 16-24)
made up most of media via the mobile in Internet (2.77 hours per day, from 1.88 in
2012).
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社交媒体对想法和行动主义的影响
Preye Jituboh
在过去的十年中,社交媒体已经成为了一个高度受欢迎的通信方法。它由网站和应
用软件所组成,这些网站和应用软件允许用户创建和共享内容或参与社交(汗 伊瓦拉)。虽然社交媒体网站有弊害之处,但有利的方面似乎多于弊处。在许多国
家,Twitter 和 Facebook 等网站让人们避开政府的审查。此外,社交媒体网站
让新闻记者躲避正常的编辑过程,通过社交媒体进行呈报。这些新闻记者可以发布
未经过滤的新闻,以便促使优良意见的产生。积极者使用社交媒体将自己的事业传
播给广泛的、期盼支持他们的群众。通过社交媒体发展的维权运动中最显著的
#BringBackOurGirls 运动和#PrayforParis 运动在 2014 年和 2015 年获得了
全球的认可。
2014 年 4 月 15 日,尼日利亚极端组织博科圣地从当地政府区域 Chibok 的寄宿
制学校捕获了 200 名女孩。当大规模的绑架案刚刚发生时,许多平民抗议,但他
们并没有得到支援。妇女,男人和孩子游行到首都阿布贾,督促政府和军队采取行
动,甚至自己前往森林中搜索。尽管如此,政府继续忽视他们的诉求和抗议。 4
月 23 日,世界银行非洲部副总裁 Oby Ezekwesili 在尼日利亚演讲,命令政府采
取行动,“带回我们的女孩”。卫报的马特・柯林斯写道,“尼日利亚的 Twitter
用户们最先在 Twitter 上所使用的 BringBackOurGirls 井号标签在世界各地所用
的次数已经在超过一百万。” 最后,尼日利亚政府听取了民众的呼喊并以
£177,000($300,000)的现金奖励任何能够找到或营救女孩的人。此外,总统
古德勒克 ・ 乔纳森接受了英国首相戴维・卡梅伦和美国总统奥巴马的国际援助,
用两国的特种部队跟踪博科圣地。社交媒体在迫使国家和国际政府对情况作出反应
上发挥了重要作用。这个井号标签的快速发展并非偶然;事实上,超过 25 万人签
署了请愿书,呼吁尼日利亚政府采取行动。频繁在 Twitter 评论贴中使用井号标签
是一个为了告知世界各国领导人和媒体情况的半组织运动的直接后果(里斯 ・ 布
赖恩)。成千上万的人,包括美国第一夫人米歇尔 ・ 奥巴马,在 Facebook、
Instagram、以及 Twitter 上发布自己手持印有此井号标签纸张的照片。社交媒体
提供了简易的信息渠道,让看到了的群众大胆提出问题,如 “发生了什么事?”
“为什么一点行动都没有?”;这种压力迫使国际领导人意识到这个问题。当数以
百万计的人们都为同一个事件努力时,民主国家忽视他们的活动几乎是不可能的。
在尼日利亚这一事件中,如果人们没有抗议或利用媒体表达他们的愤怒,那么可想
而知,几乎没人会采取任何行动。
十一月,另一恐怖组织袭击了离尼日利亚很远的一个国家。在 2015 年 11 月 13
日晚上,一系列有预谋的袭击事件遍布整个巴黎及其北郊,圣丹尼斯。首先,三起
自杀炸弹袭击圣丹尼斯附近的法兰西体育场,随后又在餐厅、咖啡厅和 Bataclan
音乐厅发生自杀式炸弹袭击和大规模射杀。该损害十分严重:368 人受伤,130
人死亡,包括 89 名在 Bataclan 音乐厅被劫持为人质;同时七名攻击者也身亡了
。这些攻击被视为二战以来对法国最致命的袭击;法国因 2015 年 1 月的查理讽
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刺报纸周刊攻击事件已经很脆弱。伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国(ISIL)声称为 11 月
袭击事件负责,并称这是对法国空袭叙利亚和伊拉克的 ISIL 领土的报复。全球对
此次悲剧的回应是震惊,悲伤和团结。在 130 人丧命的恐怖袭击随后的 24 小时
中,超过 70 万人在 Instagram 上表示他们对法国首都的支持和祈祷(洛朗 ・ 奥
利维尔 C)。 “总共 4.3 亿的 Instagram 互动——即帖子、赞和评论——都是在
这 24 小时内创建的,其中参与互动的人来自超过 200 个国家,”美国时代周刊
的一位新闻记者写到。随着#PrayforParis、#PeaceforParis 和#JeSuisCharlie
井号标签的出现,朱利安的“和平巴黎”标志成为了支持这个竦动了的国家的象征
。人们从幸存者手中直接收到信息;个人自身经历被告知,并通过 Twitter 和
Facebook 分享给全世界。真切的自身经历给了读者们一个对此悲剧激烈的如实
再现。
带回我们的女孩和#PrayforParis 运动证明了社交媒体推动了变革,增强了在当
地和国际层面上提高意识的能力。它使非本国家行动者对各自政府呼吁变化,同时
也为全球社会提供了及时的、有价值的信息。
27
阿拉伯之春:抵抗独裁的革命
Matthias Toomel
阿拉伯之春是一系列反对北非和中东独裁政府的起义和抗议。这一运动始于 2010
年 12 月 18 日的突尼斯。一名女警到一个名为默罕默德 布亚齐兹的男子跟前问,
然后没收了他的无证销售蔬菜推车。然后,这名女警往他的脸上吐唾沫并侮辱了默
罕默德死去的父亲。布亚齐兹到当地政府去投诉,却遭到无视。当日晚间,他将燃
料浇在身上,并引燃了自己。布亚齐兹的行为激起了全国的强烈抗议。突尼斯总统
扎因・阿比丁・本・阿里前去看望布亚齐兹,意在安抚民心,却以失败告终,因为
人们的愤怒已无法抑制。布亚齐兹死后 10 天内,阿里被迫下台,结束了 23 年的
总统生涯。突尼斯的平民早已无法忍受政府的压迫,而这一事件则迫使人民统一起
来,一起对抗政府。
多个革命接踵而至,对阿拉伯联盟许多国家当时的状况和多个政权进行了暴力和非
暴力抗议。一些革命已于 2012 年左右结束,政府和反政府示威者双方都未从中
得益,但少数几个国家仍继续处于内战中,尤其是叙利亚。实际上,中东目前仍然
处于动荡不定的状态,许多受到影响的主要国家在该地区的力量大大减少,而像伊
朗这样的国家则由于其邻国的不稳定而受益。
下面的地图展示了目前阿拉伯联盟各国的事态。
这些革命的主要目的是为了推翻在这些国家执政的腐败独裁统治者。抗议者除控诉
这些体制内的腐败外,还对选举舞弊,暴力,失业和普遍缺乏社会公正性表示了不
满。
突尼斯、埃及、利比亚和也门的革命取得了成功,推翻了这些国家腐败的领导人,
如卡扎菲和穆巴拉克。然而,除突尼斯外,这对于上述其它国家来说只是暂时的,
因为新当选的政府领导人无力保护新生的民主国家。在利比亚和也门政府临时政府
倒台之后,冲突一直持续到今天。埃及目前由军方领导人阿卜杜勒 - 法塔赫・塞
西领导,他是继 2013 年发动军事政变推翻穆尔西后于 2014 年当选上台的。
大多数的抗议活动都因未能成功推翻政府当局而以不了了之告终。不过,它们确实
带来了政府的一些变化,如内阁成员和法律的调整。目前,利比亚、叙利亚和伊拉
克的冲突正酣,这是阿拉伯之春的余波,通常被称为阿拉伯之冬。
阿拉伯之春和阿拉伯之冬革命现已导致 30 多万人丧生,其中大多数(80%以上
) 死于叙利亚内战。虽然大部分起义并没有成功实现所有目标,它们仍然给阿拉
伯联盟的人民带来了一些积极的影响。尽管一些国家持续的冲突和恐怖袭击仍在发
生,但阿拉伯之春给人们带来了希望,带来了信念,让人们相信通过社交媒体和抗
议,他们能给自己的国家带来变化,并且最终能够表达他们被压迫的心声。
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在阿拉伯之春中媒体所起到的作用是一个绝佳的研究案例。西方媒体使革命中的当
事者们得以分享他们的经验,并为他们提供了一种沟通交流的形式。这是一种革命
性的变化,因为这样的媒体渠道在过去是没有的。对于沙特等国的异见人士团体来
说,社交媒体把地处偏远,而且往往各自为政的群体团结起来,并为他们提供了绕
过传统媒体的渠道。这些传统媒体被国家政府控制,因此不愿意播出有关内乱和反
抗政府行为的任何消息。社交媒体往往是民众向西方记者讲述他们经历的唯一途径
。卫星电视领域也发挥了重要作用,尤其是在许多被剥夺公民权者生活的地区,他
们没有读写能力,也无法使用互联网。
阿拉伯之春的意义在于它赋予了公民对压迫政权的控制权。革命后的许多国家仍在
与腐败与歧视作斗争。根据《时代周刊》的一篇文章,突尼斯民众反映了人民对新
政权的挫败感。在这篇文章中,一个突尼斯人表示:“我们的资格和能力没有任何
意义,唯一重要的是你认识谁。现在,我们希望事情会改变。我要求我的自由,我
的权利。我想要工作。我想要一份工作。” 虽然抗议活动似乎自 2009 年以来已
逐渐平息,但或许目前缺少改变的状况可能将继续推动民众在整个阿拉伯联盟发起
新一波革命。
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企业利用媒体控制消费者
Anya Patel
在过去的十年中社会化媒体已经发展成为一个多种企业可用来对不同的人群进行宣
传的平台。社交媒体是一个交流的工具,因为它可让公司和消费者相互瞬时通信。
社交媒体用户数量正在迅速增加。据估算,在 2016 年用户数量将增加到 21.3 亿
,或大约世界人口的三分之一。因其广泛招客的特点,企业更愿意使用社交媒体作
为广告的主要形式。这给企业一个巨大的机会,促进他们的事业。
社会化媒体有着从十几岁到所有年龄段的成年人的广泛群众。每个产品都能吸引到
不同的人群。企业使用不同形式的社会化媒体推广和传播自己的想法或产品。大多
数企业化商业机构主要利用 LinkedIn。在专业人群中这是最流行的网上找工作的
社交媒体形式。但在零售市场,商业机构使用更多的网络有 Twitter、Instagram
、Snapchat 和 Facebook。这些平台是为容易被消费主义所吸引的年轻群众所设
计,但同时对其他群体也有宣传效果。
社交媒体用户往往不知道他们在社会化媒体(Instagram、微博、Facebook 等
)上的活动不但分享给了关注他们的人,还分享给了和内容相关的商业机构。这些
机构使用优化搜索引擎(SEO)等方法来查找关键字,从而推出能在兴趣和需求
上吸引你的广告。这种有效的广告方式被称为“重新定位”。这使得公司能够找到
并吸引最有可能对其有反应的人群,同时也通过使用社交媒体来操控消费者,从而
增加利润。比如说,某女生在 Facebook 上与朋友互动谈论有关头发干躁的问题
后就有可能会在她的主页上看到推销护发产品的网络广告。
社交媒体提供最流行的资料;谁穿什么,吃什么和在使用什么。Kendall Jenner
在 Instagram 上拥有超过 4 千 4 百万名粉丝(截至 2015 年 12 月),从而为她
所代表的商业机构带来了巨大的市场影响。
企业经常使用与他们的产品或想法相关的井号标签来增加关注者。井号标签聚集对
同一种产品感兴趣的用户。 Instagram 上运用了井号标签 “#Shoes” 的照片标
题目前超过 4000 万条并正在持续增加。反过来,井号标题创造了一个个人产品
销售的附属平台。 在分享图片时加上井号标题是一个轻而易举就能通告大家你的
品牌或想法的方式。
社会化媒体现在在我们的日常生活中已经根深蒂固。我们随时随刻都在使用互联网
,从而使社交媒体成为了一个简单又保证收视率的广告平台。企业视社交媒体为一
种能够影响或开发特定人群的工具。如果没有消费者或追随者企业无法前进。因此
,社会化媒体成为了一个非常现实、简单易懂又强大的网络营销工具。
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YouTube: 一个通用的来源
Renat Abazov
2005 年,三贝宝员工创办了现在世界上最流行的视频共享网站 YouTube。
2006 年 10 月 9 日谷歌宣布将以 16.5 亿美元收购 YouTube。现在,数以百万
计的人每天在网站上观看视频;一些视频已被浏览超过十亿倍。有了这个程度的普
及,YouTube 的成功超过互联网也就不足为奇了。
该网站目前用于各种不同的目的,从全球性问题到化妆教程。其中最有名的视频是
“科尼 2012”,目前拥有超过 100 万次观看。视频首次发布时成为了一个社会
化媒体上轰动一时的事件。很多人支持此事业,并捐资给视频中的慈善机构和看不
见的孩子们。视频的目的是揭发乌干达的游击战领导者约瑟夫・科尼。 6 天内
370 万人宣誓支持逮捕科尼。数月之后,该组织被指控捏造和不准确。看不见的
孩子的共同创始人因公共手淫被指控后关押在加利福尼亚州。自从视频的上传,虽
然有反对科尼的军事行动,但科尼一直没有被逮捕。该慈善组织从此解散;尽管如
此,它仍然是社交媒体吸引全球观众的光辉典范。这一丑闻引发了全球性的反应,
许多人也开始质疑 YouTube 的可靠性。
然而,这并不是说 YouTube 不是一个有效的组织全球行动的工具。肌萎缩侧索硬
化症协会(ALSA)在 2015 年夏天开始了一场运动,主要目的为筹集研究资金和
为国际社会提高对俗称 ALS 的致命疾病的意识。与看不见的孩子不同的是,
ALSA 是一个正规建立的组织,从而备受尊敬。在慈善导航网站上的 4 星制点评
中,它因优秀的财务问责制和整体透明度而被赋予 4 星。该活动中包含一个 “冰
桶挑战。”人们往自己身上倒冰水并录制整个过程,然后在视频中提名其他三人参
加挑战。被提名的人必须完成挑战、提名另外三人并捐出一笔钱,或拒绝挑战并捐
给 ALSA$100。许多参与者在 YouTube 上发布他们的挑战视频,提高全球收视
率。通过这项活动 ALSA 筹集了 11.4 亿美元,和先前大约 200 万美元的捐赠相
比有了明显的提升。自运动开始,约翰・霍普金斯大学的研究人员在这一研究项目
中已有了很大的进步;他们已经确定了患者体中导致 ALS 的这种病的蛋白质。
YouTube 有着将想法转变为群众运动、从而引发重大科学进步的潜力。
Casey Neistat 在 YouTube 上超过 100 万用户。他的影片和“视频博客”描绘
他航行到世界各地的国家的经历,以十分有创意的方式探讨发人深省的概念。虽然
他的影片很有吸引力也非常搞笑,它们有着一个深层次的意义。在他的视频,
“Make It Count” 中,他在十天中到许多不同的国家旅行。该视频展示了他在
每一个国家的经历。他的目标不是炫耀,而是传达一个信息,突出全球意识的重要
性。整个视频中,他插入促进新经验的引用句,如 “活在当下”。Neistat 和其
他 YouTube 博者们不同;他展示日常经验的价值,迫使观众从这个有深度的视角
评估自己的生活。虽然 YouTube 在过去被用为提升腐败的工具,它也可以作为全
球互动和发现的催化剂。 YouTube 提供了即时获取信息的渠道。
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传统媒体如何迎合各个年代/年龄
Liam Studer
在过去的二十年中,我们见证了媒体平台之间的距离随着技术热潮而扩大。创新者
们为了在全球范围内提供重要的新闻头条和发现而开发了更多实用和富有创意的技
术。媒体已在急速发展,目前也呈个性化格式。但其主要目的仍然是传达一个故事
,无论是一个事件,发明,技术,流行或灾难。
媒体可以分为两个主要的种类:传统媒体和社交媒体。传统媒体包括广告媒体的常
规形式,如广播、有线电视(有线,卫星)以及打印产品,如杂志或报纸。社会化
媒体包括数字媒体,网站和应用程序,如 Facebook、Twitter 和 Buzzfeed。因
商业营销发展,互联网在 20 世纪 90 年代取得了显著的成效。因此,我们正经历
着收视率和人口(年龄,种族,性别等)的巨大转变。
在互联网和社交网站的发展之前,传统媒体是由公司和企业控制的通信来源。出于
这个原因,传统媒体据说是更可靠的,因为它往往经过过滤并非常精确。随着社交
网站、互联网和先进技术的出现,新媒体创造了一个任何能访问互联网、计算机或
移动设备的人都可以共享新闻的世界。近年来,新媒体在年轻一代人之间十分流行
,主要因为新媒体大多针对年轻一代。不过,传统的媒体形式如报纸和电台也已通
过创建网络服务而适应时代的变化。
虽然社交网站和新媒体大多是针对年轻一代使用,电子邮件、Facebook 和
LinkedIn 等新的沟通形式也被老一代的人使用。虽然新媒体主要针对年轻一代,
事实证明它也吸引了老一代人。这些新开发的沟通方式都很方便,让五十岁以上的
互联网用户可以参加在线社区,无论是为了与家人、朋友和过去的同事联系还是阅
读新闻。此外,美国退休人员协会、美国生活辅助联合会和优先保证退休生活基金
会等专门针对老一代的机构都在对这一年龄组的用户推广社交媒体的使用。通过积
极推广社交网站和新媒体的使用,企业和公司正在鼓励所有年龄组的人参与在线社
区。
而对于一般的网络媒体,迄今为止最大的活动是社会性的。据估计,一天中的 2.5
小时都花在社交网站和微型博客上。这占约 40%。如果包括读/写博客在内,这
个数目就会增加 10%。智能手机严重促成了这一趋势;社会化媒体消费量的 30
%为手机,和 2012 年的 22% 相比上升了 8%。绝大多数观众还在观看节目时因
为手机方便简小的特点而同时做其他事。经计算,用手机上网访问媒体最多的是年
轻一代(16-24 岁,每天 2.77 小时,从 2012 年的 1.88 小时上升了 0.89 小时
)。
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El Impacto de Las Redes Sociales en Opiniones y El
Activismo
Preye Jituboh
En los últimos diez años, las redes sociales se han convertido en la corriente
principal de comunicación. Consiste en sitios web y aplicaciones donde los
usuarios pueden crear y compartir contenido o generar nuevos contactos (KhanIbarra). Si bien, algunas redes sociales tienen desventajas, los aspectos
beneficiosos parecen ser mayores que los inconvenientes. En muchos países, los
sitios como Twitter y Facebook permiten que las personas puedan evitar y eludir
la censura del gobierno. A su vez, los sitios de redes sociales permiten que los
periodistas puedan eludir los procesos editoriales tradicionales e informar a
través de los medios de comunicación sociales. El periodista puede publicar
noticias sin filtrar, lo que es necesario para formular opiniones bien
fundamentadas. Activistas utilizan las redes sociales para comunicar su causa a
un amplio público que es de esperar, sea receptivo. El desarrollo de los
movimientos activistas a través de las redes sociales es particularmente evidente
en la campaña #BringBackOurGirls, así como la Campaña #PrayforParis, que ganó
reconocimiento mundial en 2014 y 2015.
El 15 de abril del 2014, el grupo extremista nigeriano Boko Haram capturó a 200
niñas de su internado en la región de gobierno local Chibok, Nigeria. Cuando se
produjo el secuestro masivo muchos civiles protestaron, pero recibieron poco
reconocimiento. Mujeres, hombres y niños marcharon a la capital, Abuja,
demandando acción burocrática y militar e incluso generaron una búsqueda por
lo bosques ellos mismos. Sin embargo, el gobierno continuó de descuidando sus
demandas y protestas. El 23 de abril, Oby Ezekwesili, vicepresidente del Banco
Mundial de África, dió un discurso en Nigeria ordenando al gobierno a tomar
medidas para 'traer de vuelta a nuestras niñas'. Matt Collins, de The Guardian
escribió: "La llamada se ha vuelto masiva a través de tweeteos en Nigeria
utilizando el hashtag #BringBackOurGirls, que ha pasado a ser utilizado en más
de un millón de tweets en todo el mundo". Finalmente, el gobierno de Nigeria
escuchó y una recompensa en efectivo de 177.000 £ ($ 300.000) fue ofrecido a
cualquier persona que fuera capaz de localizar o rescatar a las chicas. Además, el
presidente Goodluck Jonathan aceptó la ayuda internacional del primer ministro
británico, David Cameron, y el presidente de los Estados Unidos, Barack Obama,
quienes enviaron fuerzas especiales para realizar un seguimiento de Boko Haram.
Las redes sociales jugaron un papel fundamental en forzar a los gobiernos
nacionales e internacionales a reaccionar ante la situación. El rápido desarrollo
del hashtag no fue un accidente; de hecho, más de 250.000 personas firmaron la
petición pidiendo que el gobierno de Nigeria tomara acción. Un alto número de
tweets con el hashtag fueron el resultado directo de una campaña semicoordinada para que los líderes mundiales y los medios de comunicación
estuvieran al tanto de esta situación. (Ries, Brian). Cientos de miles de personas,
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incluyendo la Primera Dama de los Estados Unidos, Michelle Obama, publicó fotos
en Facebook, Instagram y Twitter de sí mismos con un papel con el hashtag
escrito en él. Las redes sociales hicieron que fuera fácil acceder a la información y
hacer preguntas como: "¿Qué está pasando?" y "¿Por qué no se está haciendo
nada?"; para generar presiones locales e internacionales y reconocer el problema.
Cuando millones de personas están luchando por una causa, es casi imposible
que las naciones democráticas puedan hacer caso omiso de la actividad. En el
caso de Nigeria, si las personas no hubiesen protestado o usado los medios de
comunicación para expresar su indignación, presumiblemente, poca o ninguna
acción habría sido tomada.
En noviembre, otro grupo terrorista atacó a una nación lejos de Nigeria. En la
noche del 13 de noviembre del 2015, una serie de ataques coordinados se
llevaron a cabo a lo largo de París y el norte, Saint-Denis. Primero, tres suicidas
activaron sus bombas cerca del Stade de France de Saint-Denis. ESto fue seguido
a otros atentados suicidas y tiroteos masivos en restaurantes, cafés, y la sala de
conciertos Bataclan. El daño fue severo: 368 personas heridas y 130 personas
muertas incluyendo 89 en el Bataclan, donde se tomaron las víctimas como
rehenes; siete de los atacantes murieron. Los ataques fueron vistos como los más
mortales en Francia desde la Segunda Guerra Mundial; Francia ya estaba
vulnerable por el ataque contra el periódico satírico Charlie Hebdo el año 2015. El
Estado Islámico de Irak y el Levante (ISIL), se atribuyó la responsabilidad por el
ataque de noviembre diciendo que era una retribución por los ataques aéreos
franceses en territorios ISIL en Siria e Irak. La respuesta del mundo a la tragedia
fue de shock, dolor, y la solidaridad. En las siguientes 24 horas después de los
ataques, más de 70 millones de personas publicaron en Instagram su apoyo y
oraciones por la capital francesa (Laurent, Olivier C). "En total 430 millones de
interacciones, publicaciones, me gusta y comentarios-fueron creados en estas
primeras 24 horas, con personas de más de 200 países participando." escribió un
reportero de TIMES. Junto con los hashtags #PrayforParis, #PeaceforParis y
#JeSuisCharlie que surgieron, el logotipo de Jean Julien "Peace for Paris" se
convirtió en un símbolo de apoyo para el país. Personas recibieron información
directamente de los sobrevivientes; experiencias de primera mano y se
compartieron a través de Twitter y Facebook. Estos generaron un sentimiento de
veracidad en cuanto a la representación real de la tragedia.
Las campañas de #BringBackOurGirls y #PrayForParis demostraron la capacidad
que tienen las redes sociales de promover cambio y generar conciencia a nivel
local e internacional. Las redes sociales permiten que las personas no estatales
puedan infiltrar cambio dentro de sus respectivos gobiernos y ofrecer a la
comunidad acceso inmediato a información valiosa.
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La Primavera Árabe: Una Revolución Contra la Tirania
Matthias Toomel
La primavera árabe fue una serie de levantamientos y protestas contra los
gobiernos autocráticos de varios países del norte de África y Oriente Medio. El
movimiento se inició el 18 de diciembre de 2010 en Túnez. Una mujer policía se
acercó a un joven llamado Mohamed Bouazizi y confiscó su carro de verduras,
que no tenía licencia. La mujer policía entonces le escupió en la cara e insultó a
su difunto padre. Bouazizi fue a quejarse a los funcionarios del ayuntamiento,
pero se negaron a recibirlo. Más tarde, ese mismo día, se roció de gasolina y se
prendió fuego. Su acción provocó un gran escándalo nacional. El presidente Zine
el Abidine Ben Ali fue a visitar a Bouazizi para intentar acallar la ira. No tuvo el
menor éxito, porque era imposible reprimir las reacciones. 10 días después de la
muerte de Bouazizi, el presidente Ali fue derrocado tras 23 años en el poder. La
población civil no podía soportar más la tremenda opresión política y este
acontecimiento impulsó a la gente a unirse contra el gobierno.
Siguieron muchas revoluciones, con algunas revueltas violentas y otras pacíficas
contra la actual situación de los varios regímenes políticos de la Liga Árabe.
Aunque alrededor del 2012 algunas de las revoluciones terminaron de manera
definitiva bien a favor o bien en contra de los que se oponían al Gobierno, todavía
hay guerras civiles en marcha en algunas naciones, en particular Siria. La realidad
es que el Oriente Medio se encuentra todavía en un estado de cambio y muchos
de los principales países afectados han visto disminuir dramáticamente su poder
en la región, mientras que algunos países como Irán se han beneficiado de la
desestabilización de sus vecinos.
El principal objetivo de esas revoluciones era derrocar a los líderes de las
dictaduras corruptas que gobernaban esas naciones. Aparte de las acusaciones
de corrupción en el seno de esos regímenes, los manifestantes protestaban por el
fraude electoral, la brutalidad, el desempleo y la ausencia generalizada de justicia
social.
Las revoluciones tuvieron éxito en Túnez, Egipto, Libia y Yemen, y algunos líderes
corruptos como Muammar Gaddafi y Hosni Mubarak fueron derrocados. Sin
embargo, para la mayoría de estos países esto fue sólo temporal, ya que, salvo en
Túnez, los nuevos gobernantes no fueron capaces de preservar la integridad de
los estados democráticos nacientes. El conflicto continúa en la actualidad tras el
colapso de los gobiernos provisionales en Libia y Yemen, mientras que en Egipto
el poder está hoy en manos del oficial del ejército Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, que fue
elegido en 2014 tras un golpe de Estado militar que derrocó a Morsi el año
anterior.
35
La mayoría de las protestas finalizaron sin resultados concluyentes, en aquellas
naciones en las que las revueltas no lograron derrocar al gobierno en el poder Sin
embargo, dio lugar a algunos cambios gubernamentales con respecto a la
reestructuración de los miembros del gabinete y las leyes. Los principales
conflictos actuales están todavía presentes en Libia, Siria e Irak, que son todos
parte de la raíz de la primavera árabe, generalmente conocido como el invierno
árabe.
Ha habido más de 300.000 muertes como consecuencia de la primavera árabe y
el invierno, con la mayoría (más del 80%) que se produjeron durante el transcurso
de la Guerra Civil de Siria. Aunque la mayoría de los levantamientos no fueron un
éxito completo en la consecución de todos sus objetivos, todavía dejó a la
población de la Liga Árabe con algunos efectos secundarios positivos. A pesar de
las luchas en curso y los continuos ataques terroristas en varios países, la
primavera árabe dejado a la gente con un sentido de la esperanza y la creencia
de que tenían la capacidad de infundir cambio en sus naciones a través de los
medios sociales, protestas, además de tener finalmente una voz que expresaron
su opresión.
El papel de los medios de comunicación y su impacto en la primavera árabe es un
estudio de caso fascinante. Los medios occidentales les permite a los
participantes a compartir sus experiencias y ofrecen una forma de comunicación.
Esto fue revolucionario como los medios de comunicación no estaban disponibles
en el pasado. Para los grupos disidentes en países como Arabia Saudita, los
medios sociales se unieron grupos a distancia y, a menudo dispares y les
proporcionaron los canales de pasar por alto los medios convencionales. Estos
canales que fueron normalmente controlados por el Estado y no están dispuestos
a difundir en la red de noticias de los disturbios civiles y la acción del gobierno de
oposición. A menudo era la única manera para que los civiles comparten sus
experiencias con los periodistas occidentales. TV vía satélite también jugó un
papel importante, sobre todo en las zonas donde muchos de los desposeídos no
podía leer, escribir o acceder a Internet.
La idea del movimiento fue capacitar a los ciudadanos para obtener el control de
los regímenes opresores. Muchos países todavía luchan con los impactos de
corruptivity y la discriminación. De acuerdo con un artículo de Time Túnez ya
están ejemplificando la frustración con el nuevo régimen. En el artículo, uno Tuni
establece que "las calificaciones no significan nada. Todo es cuestión de a quién
conoces ... Ahora, esperamos que las cosas cambien. Quiero mi libertad y mis
derechos. Quiero trabajar. Quiero un trabajo. "Si bien puede parecer que las
protestas se han calmado desde el año 2009, tal vez la falta de cambio
continuará alimentando la agitación civiles a lo largo de la Liga Árabe.
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Las Empresas Manipulan a los Consumidores Usando
los Medios de Comunicación
Anya Patel
En la última década las redes sociales se han convertido en una plataforma donde
las empresas pueden tener alcance a una amplia variedad de público. Las redes
sociales son un instrumento interactivo, en el que se permite la comunicación
instantánea entre la empresa y el consumidor.
El número de usuarios de las redes sociales está aumentando rápidamente. Se
estima que el número de usuarios aumentará a 2.13 billones en el 2016. Esto es
aproximadamente un tercio de la población mundial. Las empresas prefieren
utilizar las redes sociales como una forma primaria de publicidad, puesto que les
permite tener fácil acceso a una mayor cantidad de personas. A su vez, esto
presenta una gran oportunidad para que las empresas puedan promover su
causa.
Las redes sociales tienen llegada a un alto número de personas. El público varía
desde adolescentes a adultos de todas las edades. Cada producto atrae a un
público objetivo determinado. Las empresas utilizan diferentes formas de medios
de comunicación social para promover y difundir su idea o producto. Por ejemplo,
la mayoría de las empresas corporativas utilizan Linkedin. Esta es la forma más
popular de las redes sociales que permite que profesionales puedan generar
contactos y buscar empleos. Sin embargo, el mercado de consumidores, utiliza
redes como Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat, o Facebook. Estas plataformas están
diseñadas para, pero no limitadas a las audiencias más jóvenes que son
fácilmente atraídas por el consumismo.
Los usuarios de las redes sociales generalmente, no están informados del hecho
que cualquier actividad realizada en una red social (Instagram, Twitter o
Facebook) es compartida con sus seguidores y toda empresa que esté asociada
al contenido. Estas empresas utilizan métodos como la optimización en motores
de búsqueda para localizar las palabras claves que luego se traducen en los
anuncios que apelan a sus intereses y necesidades. Este es un método eficaz de
publicidad conocida como "reorientación". Permite que las empresas puedan
localizar y atraer a las personas que tienen más probabilidades de responder. Del
mismo modo, se aumenta el beneficio generado a través de la manipulación del
consumidor que utiliza estas redes sociales. Por ejemplo, un usuario que envía un
comentario a sus amigos en Facebook sobre sus problemas de cabello “frizado”,
va a recibir una gran cantidad de anuncios relacionados a productos para el
cabello.
Las redes sociales proporcionan información que es accesible para todos. Hay
acceso a todas las últimas tendencias y modas; quién lleva cierta ropa, quién
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come qué, y quién utiliza qué. Por ejemplo, Kendall Jenner en Instagram. En
Instagram Kendall Jenner tiene más de 44 millones de seguidores (desde
diciembre del 2015), por lo que su impacto de comercialización es enorme. Es de
esta manera, que ella genera marketing para todas las empresas a las que
representa.
Las empresas a menudo utilizan hashtags icónicos relacionados a su producto o
idea principal, para conseguir más seguidores. “Hashtags” logran generar grupos
de personas que están interesadas en los mismos productos. #Shoes en
Instagram cuenta con más de 40 millones de mensajes y sigue aumentando. A su
vez, también se ha creado un mercado secundario para que individuos puedan
vender sus productos. "Hashtagging" una imagen es una forma fácil de informar a
las personas de su marca o idea.
Las redes sociales son una parte esencial de nuestro día a día. Utilizamos internet
constantemente, lo que permite que las redes sociales sean una forma de
publicidad fácil. Siempre van a contar con un público. Sin consumidores o
seguidores una empresa no puede avanzar. Por ende, las redes sociales son una
potente herramienta de creación de redes y de marketing que son muy
asequibles y comprensibles.
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Youtube: Un Funte Universal
Renat Abazov
En 2005, tres empleados de PayPal fundaron lo que hoy es la página web de
compartir videos más popular del mundo, YouTube. El 9 de octubre de 2006
Google anunció que compraría YouTube por 1,65 mil millones de dólares. Ahora,
millones de personas ven videos en la página todos los días y algunos videos han
sido vistos más de mil millones de veces. Con este grado de popularidad, no es
de extrañar que el éxito de YouTube ha superado la del Internet.
La página ahora se utiliza para una variedad de propósitos diferentes desde los
problemas globales a tutoriales de maquillaje. Uno de los más infames vídeos era
Kony 2012, que cuenta actualmente con más de 100 millones de visitas. Cuando
el vídeo fue lanzado por primera vez fue un fenómeno de la red social. Muchas
personas apoyaron la causa y donaron dinero a la campaña del video, los Niños
Invisibles (Invisible Children). El propósito del video era explotar al líder de
guerrillas en Uganda, Joseph Kony. Dentro de 6 días 3,7 millones de personas se
comprometieron a apoyar los esfuerzos para detener a Kony. Más tarde ese
mismo año, la organización fue acusada de dar información no verídica o
inexacta. El co-fundador de Invisible Children fue detenido en California después
de haber sido acusado de masturbación pública. Después del vídeo, Kony no ha
sido detenido, aunque hubo acciones militares contra él. La organización de los
Niños Invisibles desde entonces se ha disuelto; no obstante, sigue siendo un
brillante ejemplo del poder de las redes sociales para atraer a un público
internacional. Este escándalo provocó una respuesta global y muchos empezaron
a cuestionar la fiabilidad de YouTube.
Sin embargo, esto no quiere decir que YouTube no haya sido una herramienta
para el activismo global eficaz. La Asociación de Esclerosis Lateral Amiotrófica
(ALSA) inició una campaña en el verano de 2015 para recaudar dinero para la
investigación, mientras que educaba a la comunidad mundial sobre la
enfermedad mortal conocida como ELA. A diferencia de los Niños Invisibles, ALSA
está establecido y respetada. En la página web de Charity Navigator, se le dio 4
sobre 4 estrellas por la presentación de cuentas y la transparencia financiera
global. La campaña consistió en un "desafío de cubo de hielo". Las personas se
nominaban entre sí con un vídeo en el que el retador vierte un cubo de agua
helada sobre sí mismo y selecciona tres candidatos. Una vez designado, se debe
completar el reto, nominar a tres personas más y donar una suma de dinero, o
rechazar el desafío y donar $100 a ALSA. Muchos de los participantes publicaron
sus vídeos del desafío en YouTube, lo que permitió a la audiencia global. A través
de esta campaña, ALSA recaudó más de 114 millones de dólares. Un aumento
dramático desde sus previos ingresos de donaciones de cerca de 20 millones de
dólares. Desde que comenzó la campaña, los investigadores de la Universidad
John Hopkins han hecho grandes progresos donde han identificado la proteína
39
que falla en las células de los que sufren de la enfermedad. YouTube tiene el
potencial de transformar una idea en un movimiento de masas que puede dar
lugar a importantes avances científicos.
Casey Neistat tiene más de 1 millón de suscriptores en Youtube. Sus videos y
'vlogs' muestran viajes a países de todo el mundo y explora los conceptos que
estimulan formas de pensar en un formato creativo. Mientras que sus videos son
cómicos y atractivos, tienen un mensaje subyacente más profundo. En su video,
"Make It Count ', viaja a tantos países como es posible en un período de diez días.
El vídeo muestra fragmentos de sus experiencias en cada país. Su objetivo no es
ser pretencioso, sino más bien transmitir un mensaje que pone de relieve la
importancia de la conciencia global. A lo largo del video inserta frases que
promueven nuevas experiencias y "vivir el momento". Neistat se distingue de
otros usuarios de YouTube porque demuestra el valor de las experiencias de
rutinarias, lo que obliga a los espectadores a evaluar su propia vida desde esta
perspicaz perspectiva. Mientras Youtube se ha utilizado como un vehículo para la
corrupción en el pasado, también puede actuar como un catalizador para la
interacción y el descubrimiento global. Youtube proporciona acceso instantáneo a
la información que podría haber tardado años para descubrirse en el pasado.
40
Cómo medios de comunicación tradicionales abastece
a cada generación
Liam Studer
En las últimas dos décadas hemos visto cómo la brecha entre las plataformas de
medios de comunicación se ensanchan como resultado del auge de la tecnología.
Innovadores han desarrollado técnicas más prácticas y creativas para entregar
grandes titulares y descubrimientos a escala mundial. Los medios de
comunicación ha evolucionado drásticamente, ya que ahora está disponible en
una variedad de formas. Su principal objetivo sigue siendo, sin embargo, para
entregar una historia, si se trata de ser un evento, la invención, la técnica,
epidemia o una catástrofe.
Los medios de comunicación pueden ser divididos en dos categorías principales:
los medios de comunicación tradicionales y sociales. Los medios tradicionales
incluyen las formas convencionales de los medios de publicidad, tales como la
radio, la televisión lineal (cable, satélite), medios impresos como revistas o
periódicos. Los medios sociales incluye medios digitales, páginas web y
aplicaciones como Facebook, Twitter y BuzzFeed. El Internet ganó la atención
significativa en la década de 1990 como resultado de varios desarrollos de
marketing comercial. En consecuencia, estamos experimentando un cambio
tremendo en la audiencia y demográfica (edad, etnia, género, etc.).
Precediendo al desarrollo del Internet y la introducción de las redes sociales, los
medios tradicionales eran una fuente de comunicación controlados por las
corporaciones y las empresas. Por esta razón, se dice que los medios
tradicionales son más fiables, ya que tiende a ser filtrados y extremadamente
precisos. Con la aparición de las redes sociales, el Internet y los avances
tecnológicos, los nuevos medios de comunicación han creado un mundo en el
que cualquier persona con acceso al Internet, ordenador o un dispositivo móvil
puede compartir noticias. En los últimos años, los nuevos medios de
comunicación se han convertido en una forma popular de la comunicación para
las generaciones más jóvenes, debido al hecho de que las nuevas formas de
medios de comunicación están dirigidos principalmente hacia la generación más
joven. Sin embargo, las formas de medios tradicionales como periódicos y
estaciones de radio se han adaptado a los nuevos tiempos mediante la creación
de servicios online.
Aunque las páginas web de redes sociales y los nuevos medios de comunicación
son en su mayoría dirigidos y utilizados por las generaciones más jóvenes, varias
nuevas formas de comunicación como el correo electrónico, Facebook y LinkedIn
han sido adaptados para las generaciones mayores. Mientras que los nuevos
medios de comunicación se dirige principalmente hacia las generaciones más
41
jóvenes, se ha demostrado que apela a las generaciones mayores. Estas nuevas
formas desarrolladas de comunicación son fácilmente accesibles y les permiten a
los usuarios de Internet de cincuenta años a participar más en la comunidad
online, por ejemplo para volver a conectar con la familia, amigos y asociados
pasados, o para leer noticias. Además, existen organizaciones como AARP, La
Federación de Vida Asistida de América, así como la Fundación de Marcar las
Prioridades para los Años de Jubilación, dirigidas específicamente a las
generaciones mayores han estado promoviendo el uso de fuentes de redes
sociales para interactuar con los usuarios de este grupo de edad específico. Al
promover activamente el uso de páginas de redes sociales y los nuevos medios
de comunicación, las empresas y corporaciones están animando a la gente de
todas las edades a participar en la comunidad online.
En cuanto a los medios de comunicación online en general, la mayor actividad,
con mucha diferencia, es la social. Un estimado de 2,5 horas se gastan todos los
días en las socializando online en páginas web y micro-blogging. Esto representa
aproximadamente el 40%. Si incluimos la lectura / escritura de blogs, esta
proporción se eleva un 10% adicional. Los ‘smartphones’ han contribuido en gran
medida a esta tendencia, los móviles son un 30% del consumo de medios de
comunicación social, un aumento del 22% en 2012. La gran mayoría de los
espectadores también múltiples tareas a menudo cuando ven un programa, como
los teléfonos son dispositivos convenientes y pequeñas. La generación más joven
registrado (16-24 años) que compone la mayor parte de los medios de
comunicación a través del móvil en Internet (2,77 horas por día, a partir de 1,88 en
2012).
42
Afterword
We often think of media as a singular entity, but media is an overarching
topic for a variety of different forms of communication from newspaper and
magazines to Buzzfeed and Youtube.
In this digital age, media works to shape society’s opinions. It enables us to
develop our own opinion and provides a platform for activism and communication.
We also wanted you to question the biases that seem to be ingrained into media
in that each article or post is crafted for a specific audience. Does complete
objectivity in the news exist? Is it better to read subjective news? Which kind of
media is most reliable? We selected speakers who would help you answers these
questions or force you to think about the information you receive on a daily basis.
We hope that each speaker has provided you with a unique perspective regarding
media’s impact on our society.
The purpose of this year’s Working Paper was to explore the advantages
and disadvantages of media is this technological age. We hope to be a foundation
that allows you begin your own discussions, raise awareness, share your
knowledge with school’s in your respective countries, and perhaps create a
solution to some of the issues discussed. We hope that the articles presented in
this year’s working paper enhance your understanding of media’s influence on our
global perspective.
43
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May 2014. Web. 07 Jan. 2016. <http://www.theguardian.com/voluntary-sector
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Contributors
Writers
Anya Patel
Liam Studer
Matthias Toomel
Preye Jituboh
Renat Abazov
Executive Committee
Anna Lifsec
Boris Niyonzima
Erik Ryan
Eva Kashuk
Francesca Alavian
Jahanara Nares
Janice Choi
Jason Harris
Lila Olson-Duffy
Noelle Mahr
Preston Gross
Ruby Bird
Sarah Blau
Sarah Simon
Co-Chairs
Sahil Patel
Sean Waxman-Lenz
Oversight Coordinator
Thomas Siefring
47
Acknowledgements
The 40th Annual UNIS-UN International Student Conference organizing
committee wishes to extend a special thank you to Deputy Secretary General, Mr
Jan Eliasson, Mr. Michael Adlerstein, Mrs. Sylvia Howard Fuhrman, and the UNIS
Board of Trustees for their invaluable sustained and enthusiastic support and
commitment. They have been integral in the effort to put forth another successful
conference. Together, their assistance has allowed this conference to be held in
the newly renovated United Nations General Assembly Hall. We would also like to
express our special thanks to our executive director Ms. Jane Camblin, the greater
organization of the United Nations, and to all its officials and staff.
We would also like to extend a special thank you to the following for their
invaluable help and support: Mr. Salvador Uy, Ms. Laura Heffron, Ms. Laura James,
Mr. Dan Lauter, Mr. Joseph Fasanello, Ms. Angela Smith, Mr. Dan Cooke and the
Security and the ADM Maintenance Staff, Mr. Stephen Roache and the Business
Office, the UNIS Office of Student Activities Office, Mr. Corey Dorn and the
Cafeteria Staff, Ms. Susan Enzer, Ms. Michelle Fredj-Bertrand, Mr. Jerome Dutilloy,
Mr. James Richards and the Art Department, Mr. Frank Sorrentini, Ms. Joan
Brown, Mr. Antoine Delaitre Principal of the Tutorial House, Ms. Proserpina
Dhlamini-Fisher, United Nations Officials and Staff, Visiting School and Advisors,
UNIS Hosting Families, UNIS Parents Association, and UNIS Students.
This year’s conference is dedicated in fond memory of UNIS-UN founder Ms.
Sylvia Gordon.
48
UNIS-UN
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