...

ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Aroma Volatile Constituents of Brazilian

by user

on
1

views

Report

Comments

Transcript

ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Aroma Volatile Constituents of Brazilian
13, 27}33 (2000)
Article No. jfca.1999.0841
Available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on
JOURNAL OF FOOD COMPOSITION AND ANALYSIS
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Aroma Volatile Constituents of Brazilian Varieties
of Mango Fruit
Eloisa Helena A. Andrade*, JoseH Guilherme S. Maia- and Maria das Graias
B. Zoghbi*,1
*Departamento de BotaL nica, Museu Paraense EmnH lio Goeldi, CP 399, 66040-170 BeleH m, PA, Brazil and
-Departamento de QunH mica, Universidade Federal do ParaH , Campus UniversitaH rio do GuamaH ,
66075-900 BeleH m, PA, Brazil
Received March 5, 1999, and in revised form September 14, 1999
The aromas of 15 varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivated in Brazil were obtained by
simultaneous distillation}extraction and analyzed by GC/MS. The data analysis of volatile
compounds has identi"ed three distinguishable aroma groups. The "rst group, rich in
a-terpinolene, was composed of the following varieties: Cheiro (66.1%), Chana (62.4%), Bacuri
(57.0%), CametaH (56.3%), Gojoba (54.8%), Carlota (52.0%), Coquinho (51.4%) and Comum
(45.0%). The second group, rich in *3-carene, comprised the following varieties: Haden (71.4%),
Tommy (64.5%) and Keith (57.4%). The third group, rich in myrcene, was dominated by the
following varieties: Cavalo (57.1%), Rosa (52.4%), Espada (37.2%) and Paulista (30.3%).
a-Terpinolene was the principal constituent of Willard, Parrot, Bowen and Kensington varieties.
The "rst two occur in Sri Lanka, the Bowen fruit is indigenous of Australia and the Kensington
mango is cultivated in Florida. The *3-carene is the major contributor to the aroma of mango
fruit grown in Venezuela. Myrcene and (Z)-b-ocimene are characteristics of the Alphonso and
Ja!na varieties from India and Sri Lanka, respectively.
( 2000 Academic Press
Key =ords: Mangifera indica; Anacardiaceae; manga, mango varieties; aroma volatiles.
INTRODUCTION
The mango tree (Mangifera indica L.) is of great importance to inhabitants of the
tropics. It is one of the oldest of cultivated fruits, having originated in southeastern
Asia where it had been domesticated for centuries before spreading to other parts of
the tropical world. In many parts of the tropics it now occurs in a semi-wild state, and
grows well wherever fairly humid conditions prevail (Medina, 1981). In Brazil, the "rst
country in America to introduce the species, the mango is cultivated on a large scale in
the states of Southeast and Northeast. According to the data published by FAO,
Brazil is the "fth largest producer of mangoes, although it represents just 2.7% of the
total production of 15 million tons, coming after India (63.2%), Mexico (5.3%),
Pakistan (4.2%) and China (3.0%). In Brazil, the demand for mangoes to the year
2020 will reach 900 thousand tons, equivalent to almost double the o!er projected for
that year, which can stimulate the rational increase of the mango production (Cunha
et al., 1994).
1 To whom correspondence and reprint requests should be addressed. Fax: (5591) 274-4025. E-mail:
[email protected]
0889}1575/00/010027#07 $35.00/0
( 2000 Academic Press
28
ANDRADE E¹ A¸.
The present work was undertaken to investigate the aroma constituents of mango
varieties cultivated or growing wild in Brazil. Fourteen varieties of mango were
obtained in the State of ParaH (North Brazil). The 12 mango fruits collected in the local
markets of the city of BeleH m were identi"ed as Chana, Comum, Carlota, Rosa,
Bacuri, Cheiro, Espada, Paulista, Tommy, Keith, Haden and Gojoba varieties. The
two varieties collected in the localities of SalinoH polis and Salvaterra were identi"ed
as Coquinho and CametaH varieties, respectively. The variety called Cavalo was
collected in the city of Alagoas (Northeast Brazil). All 15 varieties are readily
distinguishable by their external appearance, size and taste. The Comum mango is
the principal variety eaten in the city of BeleH m, the greatest of the Amazon Region.
Until recently, the variety Haden was predominant in the market and in the
commercial plantations of Brazil. Now, for consumption in natura, it is being substituted by other varieties like Keith, Kent, Tommy Atkins and Van Dyke (Cunha et
al., 1994). The Carlota variety has been studied for the production of mango nectar
(Bleinroth et al., 1976).
The volatile components of mango have been extensively investigated. The results
obtained by most authors show that there are considerable di!erences which occur
between varieties grown in the same country to the same stage of ripeness. Most of the
studies have been undertaken using mangoes cultivated in India, Africa, Venezuela,
Australia, United States and Sri Lanka. The varieties in which the volatile compositions have been most extensively studied are Venezuelan, Alphonso, Bowen, African,
Ja!na, Willard, Parrot, Kensington, Langra, Bombay and Desi (MacLeod and
Triconis, 1982; MacLeod and Pieris, 1984; Sakho et al., 1985; Idstein and Schreier,
1985; Bartley and Schwede, 1987; MacLeod et al., 1988; Ansari et al., 1999). No reports
have appeared on the volatile components of the specimens or varieties cultivated in
Brazil.
METHODS
Sample Collection and Preparation
Fresh ripe mangoes were obtained from local markets in the city of BeleH m (ParaH State,
Brazil) and the surrounding localities or collected in orchards belonging to edible fruit
providers. The varieties of Chana, Comum, Carlota, Rosa, Bacuri, Cheiro, Espada,
Paulista, Tommy, Keith, Haden and Gojoba were obtained from local markets; the
varieties of Coquinho and CametaH were collected in the cities of SalinoH polis and
Salvaterra (ParaH State), and the variety called Cavalo was collected in the city of
Alagoas (Northeast Brazil). After removal of the skin and kernel, the freshly macerated pulp (100 g each) was mixed with water (20 mL) and submitted to simultaneous
distillation}extraction for 3 h, using a Chrompack Micro-steam Distillation Extractor
and pentane (2 mL) as organic mobile phase. Two extractions of each sample were
performed and submitted to GC/MS analyses.
Sample Analyses
A Finnigan Mat INCOS XL instrument was used, linked on-line to a Data General
data processing system, with the following conditions: a WCOT DB-5 (30 m]
0.25 mm i.d.; 0.25 m "lm thickness) fused silica capillary column; temperature programmed: 40}603C (23C/min), 60}2603C (43C/min); injector temperature: 2203C;
carrier gas: He, adjusted to a linear velocity of 32 cm/s (measured at 1003C); injection
type: splitless (1 lL, of a 1 : 1000 hexane soln.); split #ow was adjusted to give a 20 : 1;
AROMA VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF BRAZILIAN MANGO
29
septum sweep was a constant 10 mL/min; EIMS: electron energy, 70 Ev; ion source
temperature and connection parts: 1803C.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Individual components were identi"ed by comparison of both mass spectra and GC
retention data with those of authentic compounds previously analyzed and stored in
the data system. Other identi"cations were made by comparison of mass spectra with
those in the data system libraries and cited in the literature (Adams, 1995; Jennings
and Shibamoto, 1980). The retention indices were calculated for all compounds using
a homologous series of n-alkanes under the same operational conditions of analyses.
The 81 volatile constituents identi"ed in the 15 analyzed aromas are listed in Table 1.
A number of signi"cant di!erences can be observed and on the basis of these results
the aromas can be split into three groups. The "rst group, rich in a-terpinolene,
comprised eight varieties: Cheiro (66.1%), Chana (62.4%), Bacuri (57.0%) CametaH
(56.3%), Gojoba (54.8%), Carlota (52.0%), Coquinho (51.4%) and Comum (45.0%).
The second group was made up of three varieties rich in *3-carene: Haden (71.4%),
Tommy (64.5%) and Keith (57.4%), originally from the United States. The third
group, rich in myrcene, was composed of four varieties: Cavalo (57.1%), Rosa (52.4%),
Espada (37.2%) and Paulista (30.3%). The compound *3-carene was the major
contributor of the Venezuelan cultivar (MacLeod and Troconis, 1982) and the Indian
Langra cultivar (Ansari et al., 1999). The compound a-terpinolene was the principal
constituent of Willard and Parrot (MacLeod and Pieris, 1984), Bowen (Bartley and
Schwede, 1987) and Kensington (MacLeod et al., 1988) varieties. The "rst two
cultivars occur in Sri Lanka, the Bowen mango is indigenous to Australia and the
Kensington variety, despite being cultivated in Florida is reported as originating from
the Bowen mango (MacLeod et al., 1988). Myrcene and (Z)-b-ocimene are characteristics of the Alphonso and Ja!na varieties from India and Sri Lanka, respectively
(MacLeod and Pieris, 1984; Sakho et al., 1985). Moreover, the Baladi variety is
described as containing valuable amounts of myrcene, ocimene and a-pinene (Engel
and Tressel, 1983).
The terpenes a-pinene, limonene, (Z)-b-ocimene and b-selinene were identi"ed in
considerable amounts in some Brazilian varieties: a-pinene: Keith (19.9%), Rosa
(16.8%), Paulista (17.8%) and Espada (16.5%); limonene: Carlota (19.3%), Bacuri
(14.0%), Rosa (9.7%), Paulista (7.9%) and Chana (6.8%); (Z)-b-ocimene: Espada
(15.5%); b-selinene: Paulista (15.3%) and Cavalo (10.8%). On the other hand, a-pinene
was found in appreciable amounts in the Venezuelan, Willard and Bombay varieties;
(Z)-b-ocimene in the Ja!na and Alphonso varieties; and b-selinene in the Venezuelan,
Willard and Parrot varieties. The compound *2-carene was identi"ed in the Coquinho
and Kensington varieties. Among the sesquiterpenoid compounds were found alloaromadendrene, a-gurjunene and b-gurjunene. These tricyclic sesquiterpenes may arise
from bicyclogermacrene (Tressel et al., 1983) and are possible precursors of the sesquiterpene alcohols viridi#orol, guaiol and bulnesol, all identi"ed in some samples of
mango fruits. The compound b-caryophyllene was found in all analyzed samples. It is
present also in the Ja!na, Willard, Parrot, Kensington and Bowen varieties. We could
not "nd in the analyzed samples the sesquiterpene eremophilene, the principal volatile
component ascribed to the African mango (Sakho et al., 1985).
Alcohols and C aldehydes previously detected in the Alphonso variety were also
6
present in aromas extracted from analyzed mango fruits. (E)-Hex-3-enol and (Z)-hex3-enol were identi"ed in the Coquinho and Gojoba varieties, respectively. Undec-10enol was found in the sample of Cavalo mango fruit. Hexadecanol was identi"ed in
30
TABLE 1
Volatile constituents identi"ed in the aromas of 15 varieties of mango fruit (%)
Constituents
1
796
800
816
829
834
835
840
851
853
856
901
925
941 1.0
953
970
975
985
992
993 5.1
996
1014 9.5
1020 2.3
1024
1033
1034 6.8
1040
1043
1060
1065
1088 62.4
1090
1098
1100
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
4.8
1.3
14
15
2.0
1.3
0.8
4.3
0.4
0.1
5.7
0.6
0.6
2.3
1.1
2.8
0.5
1.8
1.2
18.9
1.2
0.8
16.8
19.9
0.9
17.8
0.5
9.2
1.5
1.4
1.0
0.8
16.5
0.4
1.2
1.0
57.1
0.5
1.4
0.5
7.4
1.2
1.0
27.8
2.1
1.7
1.0
6.5
2.3
4.5
19.3
0.3
3.0
0.2
0.4
2.6
51.4
45.0
0.4
1.4
0.2
2.2
2.3
2.8
52.4
3.1
57.4
4.4
9.7
6.7
3.9
1.4
1.1
7.1
2.5
1.0
0.7
0.8
57.0
0.5
64.5
7.9
5.7
0.4
4.7
30.3
7.9
2.1
14.0
0.8
1.0
52.0
2.0
2.2
66.1
6.6
37.2
7.7
3.5
0.3
71.4
0.5
6.9
2.2
0.4
15.5
1.1
2.2
2.2
1.0
3.2
54.8
1.0
4.5
0.2
4.3
0.7
7.5
1.7
1.5
56.3
0.2
1.1
0.5
0.3
ANDRADE E¹ A¸.
Ethyl butanoate
Octane
Butyl methyl ether
Furfural
Ethyl but-2-enoate
Ethyl iso-butanoate
(E)-Hex-3-enol
(E)-Hex-2-enal
Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol
(Z)-Hex-3-enol
Heptan-2-one
Tricyclene
a-Pinene
Camphene
Sabinene
2,3-Dimethyl-ciclopent-2-enone
b-Pinene
*2-Carene
Myrcene
a-Phellandrene
*3-Carene
a-Terpinene
p-Cymene
(Z)-b-Ocimene
Limonene
Phenylacetaldehyde
(E)-b-Ocimene
Isopentyl butanoate
c-Terpinene
Terpinolene
p-Cymenene
Linalool
Undecane
RI
0.4
0.4
0.1
0.4
0.8
0.6
1.2
3.0
0.1
1.8
1.3
0.1
4.3
3.5
0.9
0.2
0.4
1.5
2.6
0.3
1.0
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.3
0.8
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.4
0.6
0.6
0.4
0.3
0.8
0.3
0.7
0.6
0.2
0.8
0.9
0.2
0.9
0.5
0.3
0.2
0.2
3.0
3.2
4.5
0.8
0.3
3.4
1.9
1.8
2.1
0.5
2.0
6.3
0.2
1.5
0.5
7.3
1.1
3.7
0.8
3.9
0.8
2.3
4.3
0.1
1.4
2.6
0.2
0.7
0.8
0.1
0.4
1.9
0.4
10.8
0.6
0.7
3.8
0.2
0.3
0.6
0.5
0.1
0.1
0.1
3.0
1.0
1.6
0.5
4.6
1.8
2.8
1.0
0.2
0.8
0.4
0.2
15.3
3.6
0.5
0.9
4.5
0.1
1.8
0.7
1.1
0.8
0.2
0.2
4.4
0.4
0.7
2.6
0.1
0.6
0.1
0.5
0.5
0.1
0.6
31
1113
1130
1176
1178
1183
1184
1189
1190
1195
1201
1246
1248
1284
1311
1373
1377
1381
1394
1408
1420
1438
1456
1461
1468
1473
1475
1482
1485
1492
1494
1496
1503
1518
1524
1531
1590
1595
1596
1621
AROMA VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF BRAZILIAN MANGO
1-Isopropyl-4-methylbenzene
allo-Ocimene
3-Methylacetophenone
Terpinen-4-ol
p-Cymen-8-ol
cis-Hex-3-enyl butanoate
Butyl hexanoate
a-Terpineol
Ethyl octanoate
Dodecane
Linalyl acetate
¹rans-p-2, 8-Menthadien-1-ol
Safrole
(E)-Tridec-2-enal
a-Ylangene
a-Copaene
(E)-b-Damascenone
Ethyl decanoate
a-Gurjunene
b-Caryophyllene
a-Guaiene
a-Humulene
allo-Aromadendrene
Drima-7,9(11)-diene
c-Gurjunene
b-Chamigrene
Germacrene D
b-Selinene
Valencene
a-Selinene
Bicyclogermacrene
a-Bulnesene
7-epi-a-Selinene
d-Cadinene
Cadina-1,4-diene
Viridi#orol
Ethyl dodecanoate
Guaiol
Dillapiole
32
TABLE 1 (Continued)
Constituents
l-epi-Cubenol
Bulnesol
Apiole
Ethyl tetradecanoate
Hexadecanol
Palmitic acid
Ethyl hexadecanote
Undec-10-enol
RI 1
1626
1666
1682
1793
1878
1962
1976
2064
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
0.1
0.1
0.1
1.3
8.5
0.3
1.6
0.3
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.1
ANDRADE E¹ A¸.
RI"Retention Index on DB-5; 1"variety Chana, 2"variety Cavalo, 3"variety Coquinho, 4"variety Comum, 5"variety Carlota, 6"variety Rosa, 7"variety
Keith, 8"variety Bacuri, 9"variety Cheiro, 10"variety Paulista, 11"variety Tommy, 12"variety CametaH , 13"variety Espada, 14"variety Haden, 15"variety
Gojoba.
AROMA VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF BRAZILIAN MANGO
33
the Chana, CametaH and Cavalo varieties. On the other hand, it was found in the
Parrot, Willard, and Ja!na varieties. Furfural, one of the main constituents of
Venezuelan mango fruit, was found in the Coquinho, Espada and Cavalo aroma
samples. Phenylacetaldehyde was found in the Coquinho mango and (E)-tridecen-2-al
in the Chana variety. The unique ether identi"ed was methyl butyl ether in the
Coquinho and Cavalo varieties. The unique ketone was 2,3-dimethyl-cyclopent-2-en1-one in the Coquinho variety. Hexadecanoic acid was found in the Paulista variety
while palmitic acid was found in the CametaH and Cavalo mango samples.
Besides the terpenes, the major class was the esters, totalizing 10 compounds found
in the CametaH , Espada, Coquinho, Cheiro, Carlota, Paulista, Cavalo and Haden
varieties. Ethyl butanoate is one of the main components of the Kensington and
Bowen mangoes. For the analyzed samples it was detected in minute quantities on
CametaH and Espada varieties. Ethyl but-2-enoate found in the aroma of Kensington
mango was also identi"ed in the CametaH variety.
Probably, some of the identi"ed compounds are formed or produced during
crushing and extraction of most of the samples, specially alcohols, aldehydes, organic
acids and furan derivatives.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors are grateful to the Pilot Program to Protect the Brazilian Rain Forest (PPG-7/World Bank)
for "nancial support.
REFERENCES
Adams, R. P. (1995). Identi,cation of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy,
Allured Publishing Corporation, IL, U.S.A.
Ansari, S. H., Ali, M., Velasco-Negueruela, A., and PeH rez-Alonso, M. J. (1999). Volatile constituents of the
fruits of three mango cultivars, Mangifera indica L., J. Essent. Oil Res. 11, 65}68.
Bartley, J. P., and Schwede, A. (1987). Volatile #avour components in the headspace of the Australian or
&&Bowen'' mango. J. Food Sci. 52, 353}355.
Bleinroth, E. W., Kato, K., Sima8 o, S., de Martin, Z. J., Miya, E. E., Angelucci, E., AlomH sio Sobrinho, J., de
Carvalho, A. M., and Pompeo, R. M. (1976). CaracterizaiaJ o de <ariedades de Manga para IndustrializaiaJ o. ITAL, Instruio8 es TeH cnicas No. 13, Sa8 o Paulo.
Cunha, G. A. P. da, Sampaio, J. M. M., do Nascimento, A. S., Santos Filho, H. P., and Medina, V. M. (1994).
Manga para ExporiaJ o: Aspectos ¹eH cnicos da ProduiaJ o, Programa de Apoio à Produia8 o e Exportaia8 o de
Frutas, Hortaliias, Flores e Plantas Ornamentais * FRUPEX, EMBRAPA-SPI, Brasilia.
Engel, K. H., and Tressel, R. (1983). Studies on the Volatile Components of Two Mango Varieties. J. Agric.
Food Chem. 31, 796}799.
Idstein, H., and Schreier, P. (1985). Volatile constituents of Alphonso mango (Mangifera indica). Phyt. 24,
2313}2316.
Jennings, W., and Shibamoto, T. (1980). Qualitative Analysis of Flavor and Fragrance <olatiles by Glass
Capillary Gas Chromatography. Academic Press, New York.
MacLeod, A. J., Mac Leod, G., and Snyder, C. H. (1988). Volatile aroma constituents of mango (cv
Kensington). Phyt. 27, 2189}2193.
MacLeod, A. J., and Pieris, N. M. (1984). Comparison of the volatile components of some mango cultivars.
Phyt. 23, 361}366.
MacLeod, A. J., and Troconis, N. G. de (1982). Volatile #avour components of mango fruit. Phyt. 21,
2523}2526.
Medina, J. C. (1981). Frutas ¹ropicais. 8. Manga. ITAL, Sa8 o Paulo.
Sakho, M., Crouzet, J., and Seck, S. (1985). Volatile components of African mango. J. Food Sci. 50, 548}550.
Tressel, R., Engel, K. H., Kossa, M., KoK pplu, H. (1983). Characterization of tricyclic sesquiterpenes in Hop
(Humulus lupulus, var. Hersbrucker SpaK t). J. Agric. Food Chem. 31, 892}895.
Fly UP