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Spanish 1

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Spanish 1
Spanish 1
Unidad 1 Etapa 2
“Mis Buenos Amigos”
Nouns
Spanish Nouns
 Nouns name people, animals, places, or things.
 All Spanish nouns have masculine or feminine gender.
el chico
la chica
 When nouns identify one item, they are singular.
el amigo
la amiga
 When they identify more than one item, they are plural.
los amigos
 The gender of a noun must be learned. Usually:
 Nouns ending with –o are masculine.
 Nouns ending with –a are feminine.
 Notice the word usually! There are exceptions!
Spanish Nouns
 One cannot predict the gender of a noun that stands for a non-living
thing. Try to predict whether the Spanish words for the following things
are masculine or feminine:
 Masculine or feminine?
 book
house
money
window
 One cannot predict the gender of a noun, except in the case of living
creatures. Do not try to analyze the nature of the object, looking for
some inherent masculinity or femininity. It won't work!
 Take a guess. Do you think the Spanish word for "dress" is masculine or
feminine?
 You might expect it to be feminine, since a dress is an article of clothing
worn by females. Actually, the word for "dress" is a masculine word: el
vestido
Nouns & Number
 To make a noun plural add “s” to vowels and “es” to
consonants.
 Amigo  Amigos
 Doctor  doctores
 If a noun ends in -z, add -es and change the z to c.
 el lápiz: los lápices
 Special Note:
 A feminine noun that starts with A or HA and is stressed on
the first syllable takes the masculine article in the singular
form.
 For example, the singular form of water is: el agua. When it is
plural it becomes: las aguas.
Gender of Nouns
 Masculine nouns, referring to people, that end in a consonant
often have a corresponding feminine form that ends in -a.
 el profesor, la profesora
 Some nouns that refer to people use the same form for both
masculine and feminine. These nouns indicate gender by the
article (el or la).
 el estudiante, la estudiante
 Nouns that end in -sión, -ción, -dad, -tad, -tud, -umbre are
feminine.
 Many nouns that end in -ma are masculine.
 el programa, el poema, el clima (exceptions: la pluma, la cama)
 Some nouns end in -a and are masculine.
 el dia, el mapa, el sofa
 A few nouns that end in -o are feminine.
 la mano, la radio
Definite Articles
 Definite articles speak of a particular item. “Give me THE cookie.”
 In Spanish, the definite article (“the”) accompanies all nouns.
 In English, the definite article is the word "the" regardless of whether
the noun it introduces is singular or plural.
 It will match a noun’s gender and number!
 *Remember the masculine plural will be used if there is a mixed
gender!
 There are four types of definite articles:
Masc.
Fem.
el
los
la
las
Singular
Plural
Definite Articles - Practice
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
camisa
vestidos
computadoras
literatura
burro
cine *can you guess?*
habitación
idioma
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
la camisa
los vestidos
las computadoras
la literatura
el burro
el cine
la habitación
el idioma
Actividad 6 – Los Vecinos de Raúl
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Las chicas son Ana y Luisa.
_____
La señorita Madrigal es maestra.
_____
El muchacho es Juan.
_____
_____
Los hombres son doctores.
_____
Los muchachos son estudiantes.
_____mujer
es la señora Ramos.
La
La
_____muchacha
es estudiante.
Las
_____señoras
son doctoras.
_____señor
Robles es policía.
El
_____señores
Suarez son maestros.
Los
Indefinite Articles
 Indefinite articles speak of any number of an item. “Give me A cookie.”
 This is not specific, I could be talking about any old cookie.
 In English, the indefinite articles are “a, an, or some”.
 A cookie, an apple, some bananas
 It will match a noun’s gender and number!
 Note: Remember, the rule about mixed gender – masculine form takes over.
 “Unos gatos" could be10 male cats, or it could refer to a group of 9 female cats and one
male cat.
 There are four types of indefinite articles:
Masc.
Fem.
un
unos
una
unas
Singular
Plural
Indefinite Articles - Practice
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
camisa
vestidos
computadoras
literatura
burro
cine
habitación
idioma
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
una camisa
unos vestidos
unas computadoras
una literatura
un burro
un cine
una habitación
un idioma
Using Adjectives to Describe Gender
 Adjectives describe nouns. Like articles, they match the
gender and number of the nouns they describe.
 Masculine adjectives usually end with –o .
 Feminine adjectives usually end with -a.
 Adjectives follow nouns they modify.
 Most adjectives that end with –e match both genders.
 El chico inteligente, la chica inteligente
 Many adjectives that end with a consonant match both
genders.
 un día fenomenal, la obra fenomenal
 Some add –a to become feminine.
 El chico trabajador, la chica trabajadora
Practice Gender
 La Camisa (morado)
 La Camisa morada
 El zapato (azul)
 El zapato azul
 El sombrero (rojo)
 El sombrero rojo
 La chica (guapo)
 La chica guapa
 El papel (grande)
 El papel grande
 La mujer (simpático)  La mujer simpática
 La estudiante
 La estudiante
(trabajador)
trabajadora
Using Adjectives to Describe Number
 Adjectives must also match the number of the nouns they
describe.
 To make an adjective plural, add –s if it ends with a vowel, -es if
it ends with a consonant.
 Los chicos guapos, divertidos y fenomenales.
 Las chicas guapas, divertidas y fenomenales.
 When an adjective describes a group with both genders, the
masculine form of the adjective is used.
 El chico y la chica son guapos.
Practice
 Las Camisas (morado)
 Las Camisas moradas
 Los zapatos (azul)
 Los zapatos azules
 Los sombreros (rojo)
 Los sombreros rojos
 Las chicas (guapo)
 Las chicas guapas
 Los papeles (grande)
 Los papeles grandes
 Las mujeres (simpático)
 Las mujeres simpáticas
 Las estudiantes (trabajador)  Las estudiantes trabajadoras
Actividad 10 – Los Amigos de Francisco
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Graciela es una amiga [simpático(a)]. simpática
Mónica es [malo(a)]. mala
Javier no es un chico muy [interesante]. interesante
Rosalinda es una chica [bonito(a)]. bonita
Felipe es un amigo [aburrido(a)]. aburrido
¡Qué [cómico(a)] es Raúl! cómico
Linda es [divertido(a)]. divertida
Es un perro muy [inteligente]. inteligente
¡Qué [fuerte] es Guillermo. fuerte
Alma es [bueno(a)]. buena
Special Adjectives
 The words bueno or malo precede a masculine singular noun, they
are shortened to buen and mal.
 El buen chico, el mal hombre
 When grande precedes any singular noun, it becomes gran and its
meaning changes to great.
 Un gran estudiante
 Sometimes, a descriptive adjective can precede the noun. If the
adjective is descriptive, but speaks of a quality that is inherent and
usually taken for granted, the adjective comes first.
 la blanca nieve
the white snow (snow is inherently white)
 los altos picos
the tall peaks (peaks are inherently tall)
Practice
El gato (blanco)
2. Las chicas (inteligente)
3. Los calcetines (amarillo)
4. Las mujeres (serio)
5. La camisa (feo)
6. El sombrero y la bolsa
(negro)
7. El hombre (bueno)
8. Las estudiantes (moreno)
9. La gata y la perra (gordo)
10. Los pantalones (grande)
1.
El gato blanco
2. Las chicas inteligentes
3. Los calcetines amarillos
4. Las mujeres serias
5. La camisa fea
6. El sombrero y la bolsa
negros
7. El buen hombre
8. Las estudiantes morenos
9. La gata y la perra gordas
10. Los pantalones grandes
1.
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