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An Integrated English Course
An Integrated English Course
Book 4
Unit Nine
The Discus Thrower
General understanding of Text I
1. What do you know about the author?
2. How do you understand the title? Who does “the
discus thrower” refer to? An athlete?
3. Who does “I” refer to?
4. What’s the text about? What’s the purpose of
writing?
5. What type of writing is the text?
6. How many parts can the text be divided into?
Could you give a headline to each of these parts?
About the author: Richard Selzer
• A professor of Yale Medical School
• He writes short stories and essays which
portray with sympathy but without
sentimentality the dramatic, sometimes
agonizing, experiences of practicing
surgeons.
The title: The Discus Thrower
A discus is a heavy circular object which athletes
try to throw as far as they can as a sport.
Purpose of writing
• (p. 136)
• To reveal why the patient throws his plate.
Type of writing
• narration
• 5 Ws of the story
•
•
•
•
•
Who
When
Where
What
Why
Three parts
• Part I (Paragraph 1): beginning
--serves as an introduction to the background of
the story.
• Part II (Paragraphs 2-13): development
--presents the author’s meeting with the particular
patient dubbed the discus thrower, his conflict
with the head nurse and a detailed portrayal of
how the patient “throws the discus”.
• Part III (Paragraphs 14-15): ending
--tells of the patient’s death.
Suggested headlines
• Part I: Spying on Patients: a Habit of Mine;
• Part II: Encounters with a Particular Patient;
• Part III: The Death of the Patient.
Part I: introduction
• Spying on Patients: a Habit of Mine
• In this part the narrator tells about one of his
unique habits and justifies himself for it.
• Q1: What’s the doctor’s unique habit?
• Q2: How does the narrator justify his act?
Language work
• 1. ... that he might the more fully assemble evidence?
... he might gather evidence more fully than without spying?
• A rhetorical question
• The structure “the more fully” is the elliptical form of “all the
more fully”. In English the structure “all / so much / none +
the + the comparative degree of adjectives or adverbs” is used
without “than ...” following it to express emphasis.
Sometimes all can be omitted.
• She was waiting for the spring. She felt the younger for it.
• I walked around for two hours yesterday, and the doctor said I was
none the worse for it. 依然如故
• I know there’s danger ahead, but I’m all the more set on driving
forward.
doorway
• 1. 出入口,门口,门道
• They stood in the doorway chatting.
他们站在门口闲聊。
• 2. 【喻】途径,门路
• Exercise is a doorway to good health.
锻炼乃通向健康之门。
Compare: gaze, stare, gape, glare, peer, peep, ogle
• These verbs all mean to look long and intently.
• Gaze refers to prolonged looking that is often indicative
of wonder, fascination, awe, or admiration : 盯;凝视
• to gaze at the moon; to gaze into his eyes
• To stare is to gaze fixedly; the word can indicate
curiosity, boldness, insolence, or stupidity: 凝视
• The old couple stared at them in disbelief;
• to stare into the distance
• Gape suggests a prolonged open-mouthed
look reflecting amazement, awe, or lack of
intelligence:
张口结舌地看;瞠目结舌
• Tourists are gaping at the sights.
• To glare is to fix another with a hard, piercing
stare:怒目而视
• She glared furiously at him when he contradicted
her.
• To peer is to look narrowly, searchingly, and
seemingly with difficulty:凝视;窥视
• He peered through his spectacles at the contract.
• To peep is to look quickly and slyly or cautiously (at
sth) 匆匆地(且诡秘地或小心地)看; 偷看; 窥视
• The spy was caught peeping through the keyhole.
• To ogle is to stare in an amorous (多情的;色情的
), usually impertinent (improper) manner:
媚眼, 送秋波, 眉目传情
• She resented the way that the construction workers on
their lunch hour ogled passing women.
not all that
• =not very [infml] 不那么...
• I'm not all that keen on baseball.
我根本就不喜欢棒球。
• I'm not all that optimistic we will defeat them.
我对我们能否打败他们不那么乐观。
• God is not all that exists; God is all that does not
exist.
上帝并非所有一切存在的事物,而是所有一切
不存在的事物。
furtive
• --attempting to avoid notice or attention;
secretive
• I saw him cast a furtive glance at the woman at
the table to his right.
• The man's furtive manner made the policeman
follow him.
• 这人鬼鬼祟祟的举止引得警察跟踪了他。
Questions for discussion
1. What is unique about the narrator as a
doctor?
2. What does the narrator mean by asking the
question “Ought not a doctor ... assemble
evidence?”
3. Why does the narrator say “it is not all
that furtive an act”?
• 1. What is unique about the narrator as a
doctor?
• As a doctor he spies on his patients.
• 2. What does the narrator mean by asking
the question “Ought not a doctor ...
assemble evidence?”
• The quoted sentence is not a real question.
The narrator poses this pseudo-question to
argue that he believes a doctor is entitled to
spy on his patients for the sake of medical
treatment.
• 3. Why does the narrator say “it is not all
that furtive an act”?
• Because he wants to justify his action: he
does not actually spy but rather observes his
patients.
Part II (Paragraphs 2-13)
• Encounters with a Particular Patient
• This part talks about the narrator’s contact
with “the discus thrower”. The miserable
condition of the patient is described and the
reason for his discus throwing is implied.
Paragraph 2
• What do we know about this particular
patient? His physical appearance? His
health condition, physically and mentally?
• What rhetorical devices are used in
Paragraph 2?
Language work
• 3. It is rusted, rather, in the last stage of
containing the vile repose within.:
• -- Rather, his skin gets dark brown because
he was approaching the last stage of his life,
that is, he was dying. The “vile repose”
metaphorically means “death”.
euphemism
•
-- a mild, indirect, inoffensive expression that is
substituted for one that is considered harsh,
offensive, unpleasant, blunt
1. Death, Illness, Old age
•
•
Pass away; depart; go the sleep, go to heaven
Feeling one’s age, second childhood/ senior citizens
2. Toilet habits
•
Go to the bathroom; answer nature’s call; W. C.; the
powder room; Ladies’; Gent’s
3. Poverty and unemployment
•
Pink slip; out of pocket; in (financial) difficulties; the
underprivileged; the disadvantaged
• 4. And the blue eyes are frosted, looking inward
like the windows of a snowbound cottage.
• And (under scrutiny) the blue eyes are not clear but
covered with a gray frost-like layer, without
looking outside at the external world like the
windows of a snow-surrounded (blocked) cottage.
• frosted : covered with frost or something like frost
• a frosted window; frosted blue eyes
• The birthday cake was frosted.生日蛋糕上加了糖霜。
the windows of a snowbound cottage
…a bonsai, roots and branches pruned
into the dwarfed facsimile of a great tree.
Paragraph 2- questions for discussion
1) Why does the man seem deeply tanned?
2) Why does the narrator compare the patient
to a bonsai?
• 1) Why does the man seem deeply tanned?
• His skin is brown not because of the suntan
but because of his approaching death, i. e.
he was in the last stage of his life.
• 2) Why does the narrator compare the
patient to a bonsai?
• A bonsai is an ornamental tree or shrub
grown in a pot and artificially prevented
from reaching its normal size. The patient
resembles a bonsai in several ways.
• His confinement caused by blindness is like
the restricted growth domain of a bonsai:
the domain permitted by a pot.
• He is legless in the way the roots and
branches of the miniature tree are pruned.
• 5. ... he cups his right thigh in both hands.
-- he holds his right thigh with his hands
curved like a cup.
• cup: support or hold something with the
hands that are curved like a cup
• He cupped her chin in the palm of his hand.
• David knelt, cupped his hands and splashed
river water onto his face.
dwell
• ~ in, at, etc . . . (arch or rhet 古或修辞) live as an
inhabitant of or reside at (a place) 住; 居住
• (phr v) dwell on/upon sth think, speak or write at
length about sth 细想某事; 详述某事:
• Let's not dwell on your past mistakes. 我们不要再细说你
过去的错误了.
• dweller n (尤用以构成复合名词) person or animal
living in the place specified 住在某处的人或动物:
• `town-dwellers * `flat-dwellers * `cave-dwellers
• dwelling n (fml 文) place of residence; house, flat, etc
住处; 住宅; 公寓:
•
my humble dwelling 寒舍
swing
• - move something from one side to the other
• A large pendulum swung back and forth inside
the grandfather clock.
• The truck driver swung himself up into the
driver’s seat.
• His mood swings between elation and despair.
Para. 3-5 Questions for discussion
3) Why is the patient’s ward empty of all
possessions?
4) When the doctor asks how he feels, he
responds with a question “Feel?” What does
this show?
5) What does the patient mean when he says
“Yes, down”?
• 3) Why is the patient’s ward empty of all
possessions?
• Because there is none of the usual
possessions like get-well cards, private
caches of food, flowers, and so on, which
shows that he is forsaken (abandoned) by
his friends and family.
• As stated in the following part, he is
intolerable. And there aren’t possessions
such as shoes, either, for he is legless and
blind, and thus is confined to bed.
• 4) When the doctor asks how he feels, he
responds with a question “Feel?” What does
this show?
• This shows he is numb in emotion. His
plight (unfortunate situation) throws him
into despair and he hopes for nothing,
waiting for death. This is also confirmed by
the fact that he wants to know nothing but
time.
• 5) What does the patient mean when he says
“Yes, down”?
• This is his response to the doctor’s remark, “Down
you go. “ What the doctor means is that the man is
going down with the bed, yet the patient means
that he is going down towards death.
• Paraphrase: “Yes, I am going down,” he says,
meaning literally that he is going down with the
bed but intentionally that his physical condition is
going from bad to worse.
(7) He lies solid and inert. In spite of…
Paraphrase: He lies in bed without any motion
or any reaction. /He is motionless. From any
point of view, he gave deep impression to me,
because he appeared to be a sailor standing
across a sloping deck.
No wonder…
• 难怪;不足为奇
• It is no wonder (that) he'll sign the contract
tomorrow. 他明天签约是不足为怪的。
• No wonder people say that computers are
taking over the world.
• 难怪有人说电子计算机正渐渐接管世界。
• No wonder he is not hungry. He has been
eating sweets all day.
not…any more than
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
和…一样都不
A whale is not a fish any more than a horse is.
No +形容词/副词比较级+than-分句
Mary is no wiser than Jane.玛丽和简一样不聪明。
Cf. Mary is not wiser than Jane.
He is no more able to read Chinese than I am.
他看不懂中文,我也看不懂中文。
He is no more a writer than a painter. 既非…也非
She is not less beautiful than her sister. 她的美不亚于
Cf. She is no less beautiful than her sister. …一样
He was more of a poet than a king. 与其说…不如说…
Para. 6-7 Questions for discussion
6) Why does the man ask for a pair of shoes?
7) Why is the head nurse waiting for the
doctor?
8) What is the head nurse’s attitude toward the
patient?
9) What is the doctor’s attitude?
• 6) Why does the man ask for a pair of
shoes?
• The man knows he is legless and has no
need for a pair of shoes. Yet he still asks for
a pair of shoes when the doctor offers him
help. This shows that at the bottom of his
heart the man aspires after freedom; only a
pair of shoes can give him freedom.
• 7) Why is the head nurse waiting for the
doctor?
• Because she is waiting for the doctor to
suggest measures to deal with the patient,
who throws the food plate against the wall
every time it is brought to him.
• 8) What is the head nurse’s attitude toward
the patient?
• Irritated by his behavior, she is impatient
and disgusted with him.
• 9) What is the doctor’s attitude?
• The doctor does not agree to take immediate
measures. He wants first to make sure of the
fact described by the nurse.
Paragraph 8
• probe:探测,调查
-- physically explore or examine (something)
with the hands or an instrument; investigate
• They probed in/into the mud with a special drill,
looking for a long-buried shipwreck.
• Detectives questioned him for hours, probing for
any inconsistencies in his story.
• The official enquiry will probe into alleged
corruption within the Defense Ministry.
• heft:
-- lift or hold (something) in order to test its
weight
• I hefted a suitcase in my hands.
• He hefted his bag into the car. (lift sth heavy)
• (11) It is a sound you have never heard. It is
something new under the sun…
• Paraphrase: The wild, relaxed laughter is a
totally new sound in the world that nobody
has ever heard. The joyful laughter could
even give a promising future to cancer
patients.
(12) She looks over at me shaking
her head and making her mouth go.
• The aide looks across at me, shaking her
head to express her helplessness and
making a facial signal to show her
dissatisfaction with the patient.
• 9. I see that we are to be accomplices.
-- I see that I have to help the aide feed the
patient.
Para. 8-13 Questions for discussion
10) Why does the patient lift the cover and
probe the eggs before throwing the plate?
11) Why does he laugh?
12) Why does the narrator say the laughter could
cure cancer?
13) Why do the eyes of the head nurse narrow?
14) Does it mean that the patient cannot
recognize the doctor’s voice when he asks,
“Who are you?”
•
•
10) Why does the patient lift the cover and probe
the eggs before throwing the plate?
This seems to show that what is important to
him is not the crack of the plate against the wall.
Otherwise he would have thrown the plate with
the lid, or thrown the lid before the plate. What
he is interested in seems to be the scrambled
eggs. This is confirmed by the fact that he orders
the scrambled eggs every day and that it is after
hearing the wet sound of the scrambled eggs that
he starts to laugh.
• 11) Why does he laugh?
• For one thing, the laughter suggests his vision of hope
of his ultimate emancipation. He laughs when he hears
the small wet sound of the scrambled eggs. Probably
the scrambled eggs are his favorite food. Yet he is
determined not to eat them because he feels hopeless in
this world. He wants to put an end to his life but he
desires to die a dignified death. Thus going fasting may
be the best way. The discus throwing just strengthens
his resolve. In the sound of the scrambled eggs
dropping to the floor he visions in his mind the hope of
being liberated in the other world.
• For another, his laughter is also a sign of defiance of
the unfair fate and the unfriendly hospital workers.
• 12) Why does the narrator say the laughter
could cure cancer?
• Because every time the man throws the
plate he feels a triumph over his ego that
urges him to eat and live. His laughter is
joyous from the bottom of his heart and
expresses a sense of complete release, and
therefore it could give a promising future to
him if he were a patient of cancer.
• 13) Why do the eyes of the head nurse
narrow?
• Because she frowns on the patient’s
behavior.
• 14) Does it mean that the patient cannot
recognize the doctor’s voice when he asks,
“Who are you?”
• It does not mean that the man cannot
recognize the doctor’s voice, for the doctor
is not new to him. His question only shows
that he distrusts the doctor; he does not
believe that the doctor can help him
anyway. It is, rather, a signal of dismissal.
Part III (Paragraphs 14-15)
• The Death of the Patient
• This part tells about how the man is found
dead and what secrets the doctor discovers
about him.
Language work
•dignified:有威严的,有尊严的
-- having or showing a composed or serious
manner that is worthy of respect
• He has maintained a dignified silence about the
rumors.
• It was a woman, grave, dignified, composed,
who advanced to meet him.
• 朝他走过来的分明是一个妇人,又严肃,
又端庄,又文静。
• sweep:
-- glide swiftly; speed along
席卷;扫过;掠过;压倒性地获胜
• A 1970s fashion revival is sweeping Europe.
• Her gaze swept across the assembled crowd.
• The National Party swept into power with a
majority(选票数)of almost 200.
Questions for discussion
• 1) How is the man found dead?
• 2) What death is it?
• 3) How did he die?
• 1) How is the man found dead?
• He is found dead accidentally by the
head nurse, who reports it to the
doctor.
• 2) What death is it?
• It can be said that the patient died a
dignified death.
• 3) How did he die?
• The man starved himself to death as is
suggested at the end of the text by the
doctor’s attention to the repeatedly washed
place where the scrambled eggs dropped to
the floor.
Text comprehension
• Exercise III (p. 137)
• 1. Does the doctor feel guilty of spying on his
patients?
• No, he doesn’t. Instead, he finds the activity
justifiable. For one thing, he thinks the activity
is well-meant, i. e. he wants to collect more
pathological evidence in order to give the
patients more effective treatment. For another,
his activity is not spying in the true sense, for
the act is far from furtive.
• 2. How would you account for the
possessions in Room 542?
• The fact that there are no get-well cards, no
small, private caches of food and day-old
flowers shows that he has been abandoned
by his family and friends.
• 3.Why does the patient ask for shoes time
and again?
• As a blind man, he is restrained in
activity. Now without legs he is
completely confined to bed. Like a
caged bird, he longs for freedom and
dreams of going back to his career.
Thus it is understandable why he
repeatedly asks for shoes.
• 4. Why does the patient throw his plate?
• This is the way he expresses his wrath with the unfair
fate. He is deprived of sight and now his legs.
Deserted by society, he is left with very little; indignant
(愤慨的)as he is, he can avenge himself upon nobody.
What he can do is only to crash his plate against the
wall to vent his anger and despair. Moreover, he would
rather die in a stroke like the plate than linger in agony.
But he wishes to die a dignified death and takes going
fasting as the best way. The discus throwing
strengthens his resolve. The sound of the scrambled
eggs dropping to the floor brings him the hope of being
liberated in the other world.
• 5. What kind of laughter does the patient
give?
• It is a unique laughter as is indicated in
Paragraph 11. It comes both from the
pleasure after revenge by crashing the plate
and the hope to free himself from his agony
by means of an abrupt death like the plate.
Since freedom in this material world is
impossible to him, he wishes to have it in
the other world.
Oral practice
• Work in pairs, and retell the story to each
other, assuming the narrator is
•
•
•
•
the doctor
the patient
the head nurse
…
• Time limit: 6 MIN
Paraphrase
• 1. “Yes, I am going down,” he says, meaning
literally that he is going down with the bed but
intentionally that his physical condition is going
from bad to worse.
• 2. The wild, relaxed laughter is a totally new
sound in the world that nobody has ever heard.
The joyful laughter could even give a promising
future to cancer patients.
• 3. The aide looks across at me, shaking her head to
express her helplessness and making a facial
signal to show her dissatisfaction with the patient.
Structural analysis of the text
•
•
•
•
suggested headlines for the three parts:
(1) Spying on Patients: a Habit of Mine;
(2) Encounters with a Particular Patient;
(3) The Death of the Patient.
Rhetorical features of the text
• First look at the questions the doctor asks himself:
• Ought not a doctor to observe his patients by any
means and from any stance, that he might the
more fully assemble evidence ? (Paragraph 1)
• Is he mute as well as blind? (Paragraph 3)
• What is he thinking behind those lids that do not
blink? Is he remembering a time when he
• was whole? Does he dream of feel? Or when his
body was not a rotting log? (Paragraph 6)
• Now look at the questions asked by the
doctor in his dialogue with the patient:
• “How are you?” (Paragraph 5)
• “How do you feel?” ( Paragraph 5)
• “Anything more I can do for you ? “
(Paragraph 7)
• All these questions help to prove that the
doctor is very patient with, responsible for,
and considerate to his patient.
• By contrast, the medical aide is impatient and
sounds dominating, which can be seen in the way
she talks with the patient in Paragraph 13:
• “I’ve got to feed you,” which implies that “you are
not allowed to eat it yourself.”
• “Oh, yes I do after the way you just did,” which
means “it is your fault so you can’t argue with me
any more.”
• “Here’s the oatmeal. Open,” which is not an
expected answer to the request of the patient but a
refusal plus a command.
Grammar: As if; as though
• 表示“好像;仿佛”,用在从句的句首,描述某人或
某物的样子或某人的动作。
• The furniture looked as though it had come out of somebody’s
attic. 这家具就像从某人的阁楼里搬出来的一样。
• He lunged towards me as if he expected me to aim a gun at him.
他朝我猛扑过来,好像以为我用枪瞄准他似的。
• 使用were (尤正式书面语中):
• He looked as if I were mad.
• She remembered it all as if it were yesterday.
• 但是在口语中通常使用was:
• The secretary spoke as though it was some kind of password.
这秘书说话就好像是在说口令。
Grammar exercises -II
1. You sound as though you have enjoyed it/you had
enjoyed it.
2. Jane looks as though she needs a good rest/’she
needed a good rest.
3. You look as though you have had a good time/you
had had a good time.
4. It smells as though someone has smoked in
here/someone had smoked in here.
5. I feel as though I had run a marathon.
6. It looks as though Susan isn’t coming/Susan
wasn’t coming.
Grammar exercises -III
1. Please don’t treat me as though I
were/was a child.
2. I remember the whole thing as though it
had happened only yesterday.
3. She talks as though she knew everything.
4. He paused as though to let the painful memories
pass.
5. The lad started as though he had been awakened
from some dream.
6. He glanced about as though he were searching
for something.
Grammar exercises -IV
1. Apes are the animals nearest to men in
appearance.
2. These articles are well written, but there is
still room for improvement.
3. The passers-by stopped and put their hands
into their trouser pockets.
4. Traffic accidents often occur at crossroads.
5. Telephones are a necessity in the modern
world.
Grammar exercises -V
• 1. She talked to him as though he were a child.
• When she came in from the rainstorm, she looked
as though she had taken a shower with her clothes
on.
• 2. He went off, gun in hand.
• Diana stood motionless at the end of the diving
board, hands at her sides, heels slightly raised,
every muscle anticipating action.
Translation -I
• 1. Search lights fingered across the black
water.
• 2. Since a robbery happened in this building,
the night watchman became more careful and
made his rounds once every hour.
• 3. He stuck to his plan, though there was
nothing left to prop him up.
• 4. He is paid by the police to spy on the
activities of the terrorists.
• 5. In time they will come to accept the harsh
reality.
• 6. That man’s behavior looks very suspicious. He
is pretending to sleep, but now and then he steals a
furtive glance at the passers-by.
• 7. The social and economic changes that have
taken place in this country are so sweeping that it
has dwarfed all its neighbors.
• 8. In the dim light of the daybreak, I saw a dark
shape looming athwart the door.
Translation -II
•父亲那些浆得发硬的衬衫是个问题。他穿衬
衫时,把它套住头往下拉,两只手左右乱伸,
寻找袖子。新衬衫非常结实,经得起这样拉扯
,不会撕裂,但经父亲穿过后,很快就不牢了
。首先他知道,他会听到它开始撕裂的声音,
这使他感到讨厌。他憎恨任何脆弱的表现,不
管是人还是物。他愤怒时摸索袖子会比以前更
加用力,接着会传来衬衫撕裂时刺耳的劈啪声
和母亲大声地抱怨。
Text II A Rage against Dying
• 1. One day in 1981, she was caught in a fire
caused by the spilled gasoline from a gas
tank in a kitchen and became seriously
injured.
• 2. She suffered third-degree burns, which
means about 40 percent of her body was
burned. As the text tells us, these burns
penetrated deep into her muscles, blood
vessels and nerves. Most of the wounds
were concentrated on her face, neck, hands
and upper body. Her scorched eyelids and
nostrils were swollen shut, her lips were
blackened and puffy and her right ear was
charred. Blood and fluids were seeping
from her body.
• 3. Her father rushed to the hospital as soon
as he got the message and stayed by her side
as long as he was allowed. During his visits
he tried to help her regain consciousness by
playing music tapes and encourage her to
live on by one-sided conversation. His deep
love and great patience contributed
immensely to her daughter’s physical and
mental recovery.
• 4. There could have been many options and
possibilities for Sian to choose from. But
here is what really happened to her after she
left hospital: She attended university and
studied biology; she got interested in
medicine and finally became a surgeon in a
hospital!
Quiz-Voc
1. 聚集;装配
3. 承认,致谢
5. 探测
7. 亡故的,死去的
9. 笨拙地
11. 盆景
13. 消毒剂
2. 修剪(树枝)
4. 攀登;搅乱
6. 有尊严的
8. 被雪覆盖的
10. 鬼鬼祟祟的
12. 残肢;树桩
14. 帮凶,同谋
Key-Voc
1. assemble
3. acknowledge
5. probe
7. deceased
9. awkwardly
11. bonsai
13. disinfectant
2. prune
4. scramble
6. dignified
8. snowbound
10. furtive
12. stump
14. accomplice
April 26 (Tuesday)
• TEM4-Oral (2007)
• Task II: Talk based on a given topic
• Talk about an experience you have had in
which you tried to help someone but
actually caused trouble.
• For Group 3, 4
April 29 (Friday)
• TEM4-Oral (2005)
• Task II: Talk based on a given topic
• Please tell us one incident in which
someone was trying to help others despite
danger to his own safety.
May 6 (Friday)
• TEM4-Oral (2005)
• Task III: Role-play
• Student A: The manager of a world-famous hotel wants to recruit a
new member as the hotel’s bellboy, offering him a salary of 3,000
yuan per month. Many university graduates are competing for the
position. As a sophomore in the university, you think that they are
applying for a job unworthy for their talents. Try to persuade your
partner that you are right. Remember you will initiate the
conversation.
• Student B: The manager of a world-famous hotel wants to recruit a
new member as the hotel’s bellboy, offering him a salary of 3,000
yuan per month. Many university graduates are competing for the
position. As a sophomore in the university, you think that it is
courageous for them to make such a decision and they have made
the correct choice. Try to persuade your partner that you are right.
Remember your partner will initiate the conversation.
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