SPANISH (Stem changing verbs) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U5oAHfWaZ7Y Words in Spanish are composed with a stem (root) and affixes. Affixes give gender, number, conjugation, etc. Gat = gato-a gatos Boot verbs (stem changing verbs) have specific changes. The “stem” has a small change in spelling when we conjugate them in yo, tú, él, ella, Ud., ellos, Uds forms stems Cerrar = to close Empezar = to start, to begin Preferir = to prefer Querer = to like Pensar = to think Entender = to understand All boot verb conjugations that would be “in the boot” have a change before adding the regular endings. VOSOTROS Only “nosotros” and “vosotros” don’t have this change I stay out of the boot! Me too! NOSOTROS VOSOTROS We feel regular & normal. We don’t like all of these crazy changes, so we avoid boots. Please click on the form that would not have a BOOT verb change. Ellos vosotros Nosotros Vosotros Some boot change verbs take an innocent little “e” and make it into an “ie.” See what happens with the verb “pensar” As usual, the “—ar” ending comes off. Pensar As usual, the “—ar” ending comes off. Pens- Now the “e” becomes “ie”. Pens- Now the “e” becomes “ie”. Piens- Now you just add the regular endings. Piens- For example: With “Yo” you add the “-o”. Yo Pienso -o -as Tú Piens_ -a -nosotros -vosotros -an What would you add with all? Remember the “-ar” endings? Yo -o Nosotros Tú -as X -a Ellos Ellas Ustedes Él Ella Usted -amos -an ¡Muy bien! Tú Piensas How would you conjugate? Pensar Yo Nosotros-as Pienso pensamos Tú Vosotros –as piensas pensáis Él, ella, usted piensa Ellos –as , ustedes piensan So now that you know about the “e” to “-ie” boot verbs, click on the form that would not make this change with these boot verbs: Él (pensar) Yo (querer) Ella (comenzar) Nosotros (preferir) Tú (cerrar) Maybe you need to see this again. Hmmmm… ¡Excelente! Notice that the “nosotros” form kept its innocent little “e,” but nobody else did? Él piensa Yo quiero Ellas comienzan Nosotros preferimos Tú cierras You remembered that “nosotros” and “vosotros” don’t have the boot verb change. I stay out of the boot! Me too! NOSOTROS VOSOTROS So now you get the idea of the “e” to “ie” boot verbs. There are some boot verbs that make a change from an “o” or a “u” into “ue.” like jugar, dormir, poder, almorzar, volver, costar, One that we have practiced is “jugar.” It is a “u” to “ue” boot verb. All you need to do now is get through a maze to give “jugar” its “ue.” Sounds simple, doesn’t it? All you have to do to finish the practice it get to the “ue.” Es muy fácil. Ok, click the “jugar” button to play. Oh, by the way: Don’t touch the walls of the maze. You will have 10 seconds. Suerte. JUGAR UE JUGAR Ouch! You got the boot! That must have hurt! Try again. ¡Tú juegas muy bien! You have completed your boot verb practice! P.S.: I was just kidding about only having 10 seconds. If you did it that fast, give yourself a pat on the back. Gracias. There are also some boot verbs that make a change from e into i such as servir (to serve), pedir (to order, to ask for) We will study them later….. ¡Chévere! ¡No hay más!