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How to form the subjunctive mood

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How to form the subjunctive mood
How to form the subjunctive
mood
The subjunctive mood is used a great
deal in the Spanish language. For
example, the subjunctive can help a
person to talk about something wished
for, something about which a person
feels some special emotional reaction,
or something that is not real in some
way.
Before you see any examples of the
subjunctive in action, you will learn the
proper forms of this mood. This first
section will simply teach you how to
form the subjunctive.
Consider this section a boot camp for
forming the subjunctive.
For now, all you will have to do is
conjugate, memorize, conjugate, and
then memorize some more.
Regular verbs
Casar
Case
Cases
Case
Meter
Casemos
Caséis
Casen
Meta
Metas
Meta
Vivir
Metamos
Metáis
Metan
Viva
Vivas
Viva
Vivamos
Viváis
Vivan
-ar verbs: take off the “-ar” ending to the infinitive
Add “e, es, e, emos, éis, en”
-er/-ir verbs: take off the “-er/-ir” ending of the infinitive
Add “a, as, a, amos, áis, an”
Stem-changing (boot) verbs
-ar and –er “boot” verbs
What happens with “boot” verbs in the
subjunctive? –Ar and –Er “boot” verbs
operate the same way “boot” verbs do in the
present tense. The stem change occurs only
inside the boot in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd person
singular, and in the 3rd person plural.
The endings are typical subjunctive endings: ar verbs “e, es, e, emos, éis, en”; -er verbs “a, as,
a, amos, áis, an”
Examples:
Cerrar = (e- ie)
Volver (o-ie)
Cierre
Cerremos
Cierres Cerréis
Cierre
Cierren
Contar (o-ue)
Vuelva
Vuelvas
Vuelva
Entender
Cuente
Cuentes
Cuente
Entienda Entendamos
Entiendas Entendáis
Entienda Entiendan
Contemos
Contéis
Cuenten
Volvamos
Volváis
Vuelvan
(e-ie)
-Ir boot verbs
-ir “boot” verbs are a little bit different in the
subjunctive.
The expected stem changes occur inside the
boot (in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd person singular and in
the person plural)
In addition, changes are required in the 1st
person and 2nd person plural as well.
These special out of the boot changes are the
same changes found with these –ir verbs in
the 3rd person singular and plural of the
preterite. (ex. Sentir = sintió; dormir=
durmió)
-IR Boot Verbs
Sentir
Dormir
Sienta
Sintamos
Sientas Sintáis
Sienta
Sientan
Pedir
Duerma Durmamos
Duermas Durmáis
Duerma Duerman
Morir
Pida
Pidas
Pida
Muera
Mueras
Muera
Pidamos
Pidáis
Pidan
Muramos
Muráis
Mueran
Irregular Verbs
You remember that there were a number of
verbs that had irregular conjugations in the
present tense in the 1st person singular (ex.
oigo, quepo, veo, etc…).
Because the subjunctive generally builds on
the 1st person singular, you will notice those
irregularities played out in every form of the
subjunctive.
Irregulars:
Caber = quepCaer = caigDecir = digHacer = hagOir = oigPoner = pongSalir = salgTener = tengValer = valgVenir = vengVer = ve-
+ opposite endings
(a, as, a, amos, áis, an)
Verbs with special spelling
changes:
car = que
Sacar
cer/cir = zca
Conocer
gar = gue
Pagar
Saque Saquemos
Saques Saquéis
Saque Saquen
Conozca
Conozcas
Conozca
Pague
Pagues
Pague
Conozcamos
Conozcáis
Conozcan
ger/gir = ja
Escoger
zar = ce
Rezar
Escoja
Escojas
Escoja
Rece
Reces
Rece
Escojamos
Escojáis
Escojan
Recemos
Recéis
Recen
Paguemos
Paguéis
Paguen
Super-irregulars
Finally, there are 6 verbs whose
subjunctive forms are just “locas.”
They are not built upon the 1st person
singular of the present tense.
You will have to memorize these special
verbs.
Dar
Dé
Des
Dé
Ir
Estar
Demos
Deis
Den
Esté
Estés
Esté
Haber
Estemos
Estéis
Estén
Saber
Vaya Vayamos Sepa Sepamos
Vayas Vayáis
Sepas Sepáis
Vaya
Vayan
Sepa
Sepan
Haya Hayamos
Hayas Hayáis
Haya Hayan
Ser
Sea
Seas
Sea
Seamos
Seáis
Sean
Now that you know the conjugations for
the subjunctive mood conjugate the
following verbs:
Caminar
Meter
Subir
Sentar
Mover
Dormir
Tener
Salir
Conocer
Pagar
Dirigir
Buscar
Ir
Ser
Saber
Caminar
Camine
Camines
Camine
Caminemos
Caminéis
Caminen
Meter
Meta
Metas
Meta
Metamos
Metáis
Metan
Subir
Suba
Subas
Suba
Subamos
Subáis
Suban
Sentar
Siente
Sientes
Siente
Sentemos
Sentéis
Sienten
Mover
Mueva
Muevas
Mueva
Movamos
Mováis
Muevan
Dormir
Duerma
Duermas
Duerma
Durmamos
Durmáis
Duerman
Tener
Tenga
Tengas
Tenga
Tengamos
Tengáis
Tengan
Salir
Salga
Salgas
Salga
Salgamos
Salgáis
Salgan
Conocer
Conozca
Conozcas
Conozca
Conozcamos
Conozcáis
Conozcan
Pagar
Pague
Pagues
Pague
Paguemos
Paguéis
Paguen
Dirigir
Dirija
Dirijas
Dirija
Dirijamos
Dirijáis
Dirijan
Buscar
Busque
Busques
Busque
Busquemos
Busquéis
Busquen
Ir
Vaya
Vayas
Vaya
Vayamos
Vayáis
Vayan
Ser
Sea
Seas
Sea
Seamos
Seáis
Sean
Saber
Sepa
Sepas
Sepa
Sepamos
Sepáis
Sepan
Write the forms of the subjunctive mood that
corresponds to these verb forms of the present
indicative tense.
Comen
Piden
Protegen
Se sienten
Podemos
Morimos
Enciendo
Cerráis
Pedís
Dormimos
Buscan
Va
Son
Comienzan
Dices
Vemos
Pago
Tienes
Answers:
Coman
Pidan
Protejan
Se sientan
Podamos
Muramos
Encienda
Cerréis
Pidáis
Durmamos
Busquen
Vaya
Sean
Comiencen
Digas
Veamos
Pague
Tengas
From which infinitives did the following
subjunctive forms come?
Sean
Tengan
Se sientan
Compréis
Conozcáis
Muramos
Oigan
Practiquen
Sepas
Des
Answers:
Ser
Tener
Sentirse
Comprar
Conocer
Morir
Oír
Practicar
Saber
Dar
The Subjunctive mood after
indirect commands
An indirect command features a main clause
that asks someone to do something, and a
dependent clause (the part of the sentence
that follows the word “que”) that mentions
the action that the speaker wants the other
person to do.
The subjunctive is used in that dependent
clause because the action being described
has not happened yet.
There is a certain level of uncertainty
inherent in the sentence, and the use of a
verb in the subjunctive mood helps to express
that uncertainty.
Examples:
Quiero que mi amiga baile conmigo esta
noche.
I want my friend to dance with me
tonight.
Mi madre insiste en que comamos la
ensalada primero.
My mother insists that we eat the salad
first.
Pedimos que los oficiales nos escriban más
tarde.
We are asking the officials to write to us
later.
In all of the previous sentences, the action in
the dependent clause hasn’t happened yet.
It is not verifiable.
For example, in the first sentence, I want my
friend to dance with me, but she just might
not.
In sentence 2, my mom wants us to eat the
salad first, but we may choose to eat dessert
first.
In the third sentence, we ask the officials to
write us later, but maybe they will choose to
write us now or not at all.
The subjunctive beautifully helps to convey
that level of uncertainty.
Common verbs that express commands that
would be found in the main clause of these
types of sentences.
Decir
Dejar(to allow, permit)
Desear
Esperar
Exigir(to demand)
Hacer
Insistir en (to insist on)
Mandar(to order)
Pedir(i)
Permitir
Preferir(ie)
Prohibir
Querer(ie)
Recomendar (ie)
Rogar(to beg)(ue)
Sugerir(to suggest)(ie)
Here is a review of the “formula”
found in this section:
Subject #1 + verb #1 + que + subject
#2 + verb #2
The first person (subject #1) wants,
wishes, insists, suggests (verb #1) that
(que) (subject #2) do something (verb
#2)
Translate the following sentences
into Spanish.
1. I’m telling you to shut your mouth immediately!
2. My friends recommend that I return home
immediately.
3. My grandmother wants me to see the film “Harry
Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone” with her.
4. My girlfriend insists that I wear a white suit at our
wedding, but the idea doesn’t appeal to me at all.
5. The sergeant orders us to write down the orders
in a notebook.
6. That cook prohibits me from making bread in her
kitchen.
7. The boys are begging that the witnesses tell the
truth.
¡Te digo que cierres la boca inmediatamente!
Mis amigos recomiendan que vuelva a casa
enseguida.
Mi abuela quiere que yo vea la pelicula “Harry
Potter and the Socerer’s Stone” con ella.
Mi novia insiste en que yo lleve un traje
blanco en la boda (a nuestra boda), pero no
me apetece nada la idea.
El sargento nos manda que escribamos las
órdenes en un cuaderno.
Esa cocinera prohibe que yo haga pan en su
cocina.
Los chicos ruegan que los testigos digan la
verdad.
El Fin
Information cited from:Conner, John Breaking the Spanish Barrier 2006
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