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Location: Central Europe Neighbouring Countries: 7 – Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Kaliningrad Oblast Seas: Baltic Sea Area: 312,679 km² Topography: plains, grasslands, highlands, mountain ranges OVER 1000 YEARS 1791 1795 1788-92 1807 1815 1773 1901 1920 1926 1772-1795 1683 1914 -1918 1939-1945 1569 1466 1948 1410 1952 1364 1981 1989 1025 966 2004 more... more... more... more... more... Rudolf Gundlach In 1934 he created a reversible periscope, which involved a 360˚ view without changing position. That invention is still used and was patented in France, Great Britain and Sweden. The periscope’s plans were stolen by Germans and Russians. Jan Szczepanik He patented a device for photoelectric sound recording on a film tape. The development of film was possible thanks to him. Alojzy Świętosławski In 1935 he created an extra sensitive thermometer called Świętosławski ebulliometer which can be used for extremely accurate measurements of boiling temperature. Stefan Feliks Manczarski He was one of the first television originators around the world. In 1929 he created the first Polish telly. Polish scientists were responsible for the following breakthroughs in science: STEFAN BANACH (1892-1945) mathematician, creator of functional analysis who set up a School in Lvov which paved the way for Polish mathematics to earn top world ranking more... KAROL OLSZEWSKI – chemist, professor at Jagiellonian University whose efforts in 1833 together with physicist ZYGMUNT WRÓBLEWSKI led to the condensation of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide from air JAN CZOCHRALSKI (1885-1953)– elaborated the production method of monocrystals used for manufacturing of semi-conductors more... If you aren’t sure.... Maria Skłodowska Curie (Physics) Henryk Sienkiewicz (Literature) 1903 1905 Sienkiewicz received his Nobel Prize for „Quo vadis”. Maria Skłodowska Curie (Chemistry) Władysław Reymont (Literature) 1911 1924 He got his Nobel Prize for the novel entitled „Chłopi” Czesław Miłosz (Literature) 1980 He was awarded a Nobel for his contribution to literary output. Lech Wałęsa (Politics) 1983 Wisława Szymborska (Literature) 1996 She was granted the Nobel Prize for her contribution to literary heritage. John Paul the Second - was one of the greatest Popes. The Pope - traveller, eternal defender of human rights and important values Lech Wałęsa- is a well-known former Polish politician. As a leader of Solidarity he was awarded a Nobel Peace Prize in 1983. His activity helped change the political situation in Poland and Europe. He was elected the President of the Republic of Poland after communist government rule in Poland. Polish chemistry, physics and mathematics can boast the highest number of scientific publications in all fields of sciencs, taking 19th place on the ranking list of the Scientific Information Institute in Philadelphia; Physics Mathematics History Chemisty the discovery of the practical implementation of the blue laser by the team led by Prof. Sylwester Porowski from PAN (to detect cancer cells, control rockets or monitor contamination) the design of the technology for the manufacture of the smallest synthetic diamonds in the world designing nano-crystals for the purposes of 3G mobile telephony systems the discovery of a substance which induces cancer cells to self-destruct and vaccines against Heine-Medina and typhus implanting novatory valvules in the heart by a group of cardio-surgeons, led by Prof. Jerzy Sadowski from the Hospital named after Pope John Paul II in Cracow, constructing an artificial heart, producing Polish insulin, elaborating the test to check for the presence of the CHEK2 gene for detecting predispositions to cancer, designing unique scald bandages, making the first European cardiosurgical robot Robin Heart. more... more... more... Bohdan Paczyński – renowned for searching dark matter in the Universe PAN Space Research Centre specialising in designing instruments and devices e.g., spectro-photo-metres for 2008 Interplanetary Mission Beppi Colombo – unmanned space craft to probe Mercury, Mars, Tytan. Henryk Arctowski - one of the most outstanding researchers of the polar area; traveller and geophysicist who explored Antarctica and Spitsbergen. The first Polish stationary polar station set up in 1977 was named after ARCTOWSKI Thanks to it, Poland became the 13th Member of the Antarctic System. Nowadays it belongs to the club of 28 countries and is representated at international conferences. In the summer of 2003/04 the Polish Polar Station was visited by about 3 thousand tourists from around the world. POLISH ARCHEOLOGISTS in the Mediterranean area (Egypt, Crimea, the Middle- Near East) - for example- the Hatshepsut Temple excavated by Polish archeologists in Egypt. Rudolf Modrzejewski – a designer of bridges in the USA, e.g. the Benjamin Franklin Bridge in Philadelphia and a bridge over the river Missisipi; Gabriel Narutowicz – the first president of independent Poland but also a well-known engineer who built many hydro-electric power stations in Switzerland during emigration; Władysław Tryliński- in 1929 Trylinski with Wladyslaw Bryla built, the first in Europe, welded bridge across Słudwia river (near Łowicz). In 1935 he patented a tough pavement with six-cornered blocks called “trylinka’. Wladyslaw Trylinski patented also reinforced concrete base railway (used around the world). Lucjan Lągiewka – Polish inventor, designer of many technical devices such as dynamic brake and bumper. Witold Lutosławski (1913- 1994) avant-garde composer but it was his mournful music that made the biggest impression on audiences, Krzysztof Penderecki (1933) the most versatile composer, author of Credo whose operas are performed on the stages all over the world e.g.”Raj utracony, Czarna Maska and Król Ubu” Tadeusz Kantor – avant-garde artist hailed the importer of novelties from West”, an inventor of new techniques in painting, sculpture, graphics, theatre, happening. Henryk M. Górecki (1933) – his III Symphony became an international bestseller in Baden-Baden 1976 , making him one of the best contemporary composers. Magdalena Abakanowicz – creator of a new form of spatial tapestry. Gained international fame after receiving an award at Sao Paulo Biennale 1965. Andrzej Wajda is a known throughout the world Polish director. In his movies he shows fates of people in important historic moments . He received many prestigious awards such as: Gold Bear at the Berlin Festival; Golden Palm at Festival in Cannes for the motion picture entitled: Iron Man “Człowiek z Zelaza”. He was nominated for the Oscar for the film about Katyn. In 2000 he was awarded Oscar for lifetime achievements. Zbigniew Rybczyński 1983 for the best cartoon film Janusz Kamiński – 1993 and 1998 for shooting the films: ”Schindler’s List” and ”Saving Private Ryan”. Allan Starski and Ewa Brown - for the screenplay of Schindler’s List” Jan A.P. Kaczmarek – 2005 for composing music to the film ”Finding Neverland” Roman Polański 2003 for directing the film” The Pianist” Robert Kubica - he is the firsst Polish racing driver to compete in Formula One. Adam Małysz – he is the best Polish ski jumper and the only ski jumper ever to win the World Cup 3 times in a row. Justyna Kowalczyk –Polish ski-runner who won 3 gold medals in the World Championships in Liberc Mariusz Czerkawski - he is a Polish hockey player, playing in famous foreign clubs. What ‘s curious, he has gained (for unknown reasons) the nickname: Polish Prince. Polish IT specialists are much sought after abroad. Well-qualified managerial staff in Poland Talented Youth Resourceful entrepreneurs Effective manufacturers INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIES Poland distinguishes itself in terms of ICT graduates who are winning in the prestigious Top Coder ranking and also achieving high positions in the worldwide Polish Students the best at ICT in the world! For the last 12 years pupils of junior highschools have been winning gold medals at International Computer Science Contests. In 2006 Filip Wolski became the world champion in computer studies in Mexico. In 2007 Tomasz Kulczyński repeated his success in Croatia. A year later Marcin Kościelnicki took third place in the world contest in Egypt. In April 2005 Cracow University of Economics graduates won an international management contest – EUROMANAGER in Lisbon. Lifetech –life saving system is an invention made a year later by students from University of Technology in Poznań. They beat 250 teams and proved to be the best in the world. The highest note was given to them by jury of Computer Society in charge of International Design Competition in Washington. In 2008 students of computer science in Warsaw University won 9th edition of Global Managament Challenge. Google Code Jam Competition and the IBM Linux Scholars Challenge. Over 300 Polish IT engineers are employed in Silicon Valley, California. Jarek Nadrzycki Leopold Hess 19 year-old student of High School in Bielsko-Biała won theInternational Competition of Philosophy in Seul. Leopold is also a laureate of the central contest in Polish, Latin and philosophy. He has learnt six other languages but this outstanding student can find spare time for a friend or for practising sports. Tomasz Czajka He is an exceptionally gifted computer scientist. Tomasz is 20 odd year old student of Warsaw University. In December 2003 he won an important contest in the USA. Then, it turned out that he is the fastest person in writing computer programs. Since then large companies have been sending him propositions to work with them. This 18 year-old boy from Żagań won the highest trophy in International Violin Contest Max Rostal in Berlin in 2002. Pole was the youngest participant of the contest and as he proved – the best. The commission didn’t announce the first and third places. Jarek who played I Violin Concert of Dymitr Szostakowicz took the second place. Jan Mela He is the youngest and the only disabled who reached North Pole on 24th April 2004 at the age of 15. When he was 13 years old, he lost his leg and arm as a result of electric current paralysis. Marek Kamiński, Wojciech Ostrowski and Wojciech Moskal are famous polar explorers. They accompanied him on his 120 kilometer- expedition by ice gaps, in 30˚ frost. The trip lasted 10 days. Maciej Hermanowicz He is an unusually talented teenager. He would like to be a scientist. When he was 3 years old, he could already read. Two years later Maciej was learning English and playing the piano. Now he knows French, German and he has already learnt Italian. Besides, Maciej writes poems and wins a lot of contests in this field. In February 2004 he worked on analyzing the photos of Mars in the NASA laboratory in Pasadena. You can follow in their footsteps Kasia Sobolewska The student of High School in Bolesławiec reads 35 500 words per minute with 95% text understanding. Her achievement is inscribed in The Guinness Book of World Records. Jan Bielecki The winner of the 15th International Chopin Music Competition Ten year-old Jan Bielecki from Łodz won the Europe Cup in figure skating. Young master has already taken part in ten competitions in Poland and Europe. Jan has won a gold medal eight times and a silver medal twice. Poland’s "aviation valley” is famous for its aviation industry and pilot training centres. It draws its knowledge from a hundred years of aviation traditions and 70 years of Polish experience in aviation. Manufacturing companies in Poland produce: light sports, passenger, agricultural and training aircrafts, helicopters, gliders, aircraft parts and accessories. In general, there are more than 60 aviation companies operating in Poland which employ a total of 18 thousand people. The aircraft are exported, mainly to: the USA, Venezuela, Italy, Greece, Canada, Spain, Germany, South Korea, Indonesia, Vietnam and Iraq. PZL Mielec One of them is ( Manufacturer of light transport and specialpurpose airplanes, agro and fire-fighting and trainer aircraft, supplier of aerostructures and aircraft components for international industrial cooperation programs). Poland - centre of automotive sector suppliers Poland is also a leading manufacturer of components such as: tyres, car seats and upholstery, car electronics, electric cables, Engines are slowly becoming “Polish specialty”. car brake's systems. Components manufactured in Poland are installed in cars of many brands, such as: Mercedes, Nissan, Opel, Porsche, Toyota, Volkswagen, Isuzu, Fiat, Citroen, Honda, Peugot, Volvo, BMW, Rolls-Royce, Lamborghini and Ferrari. Our boast: cars Gepard and Leopard produced in Mielec Amica - the largest Polish producer of domestic appliances sells around 40% of its production to 40 foreign markets. Another Polish producer, Zelmer is the largest domestic manufacturer of home appliances and a significant international player on the vacuum cleaners market. The company sells half of its production on the foreign markets. Polish boat builders have specialized in small and medium sized yachts of up to 7.5 metres in length. The so called ‘Big Five’ of the Polish boatyards, which include Balt Yacht, Delphia Yachts, Galeon, Ostróda Yachts and Ślepsk, export nearly 100% of their production. Polish producers of juices and confectionery also conquer new markets. The Group Maspex Wadowice is one of the largest food processing companies in Poland Polish confectionery brand names such as Wedel, Solidarność, Jutrzenka or Odra have been present abroad for many years. POLISH BREWERIES After the EU accession Polish breweries also commenced an exporting offensive. In terms of beer exports, 2004 was a record year - 400 thousand hectoliters. One can buy Okocim and Żywiec in Chicago (present on the American market for 40 years), or purchase Carlsberg brewed in Brzesko in London. Brok is sold in Hungarian supermarkets and Żywiec exported its beer to the USA, Canada, Great Britain and also to other countries, whereas Okocim sent its beer to Great Britain, Slovakia and Hungary. Polish health tourism has a proud two-hundred year old history. In 75 places there are more than 321 health spas offering unique health facilities and treatments. There is even an underground spa in a former salt mine. Nałęczów, Krynica Zdrój, Augustów, Kołobrzeg, Ciechocinek, Rabka, Duszniki Zdrój, Wieliczka. Source: Internet - www.paiz.gov.pl Atlas Polski - Reader’s Digest Poland came into being in the 10th century through unification of Slavic tribes by Duke Mieszko I. He was the first historical duke of Poland The first King of Poland was Boleslaw I (Boleslaus the Brave) crowned in 1025. The outline of Polish territory was changing constantly because Poland had strong and aggressive neighbours just then with whom our homeland was waging wars. The last King of Poland was Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski who abdicated in 1795. In the same year Poland disappeared from the European Map because it was scooped by Russia, Austria and Prussia. In 1918 Poland got back her independence, but as early as in 1939 it was attacked by the Third Reich and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic. Between 1945 and 1989 Poland was under influence of the USSR as a socialist country. Martial law was introduced in Poland on 13th December in 1981. Since 1989 our motherland has been sovereign country. In 1999 Poland joined NATO and in 2004 entered the European Union Poland became a democratic country. Casimir III the Great was one of the most outstanding lords of Poland and the last from the Piast dynasty. In 1333 he acceded to the throne of Poland. He was waging very active foreign policy by developing contacts with the Teutonic Order, Czech, Hungary and Kievan Rus′. Casimir the Great strengthened the Polish country, founded 50 cities and walled about 30 of them. In 1364 he founded the first Polish university and the oldest in Central Europe – Cracow’s Academy. Jadwiga of Anjou was the Queen of Poland from 1384 until her death in 1399. She was ten years old when she acceded to the throne of Poland. At the age of 12 she married to Grand Duke of Lithuania – Ladislaus Jogaila (Jagiello). She was very wellknown for her beauty and generosity. She gave her jewellery for renovation of Cracow Academy, whose name was changed to Jagiellonian University. The Battle of Grunwald (or 1st Battle of Tannenberg) which took place on 15 July 1410 – on one side between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, led by the Polish king Władysław II Jagiełło, - and on the opposite site - the Knights of the Teutonic Order, led by the Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen. It was the decisive engagement in the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War (1409-1411) and an important battle in Medieval Europe because it prevented further expansion of the Teutonic Knights. The Battle of Vienna was held on 12th September 1683 after Vienna had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months. The battle broke the advance of the Ottoman Empire into Europe, and marked beginning of the political hegemony of the Habsburg dynasty in Central Europe. The large-scale battle was won by Polish-Austrian-German forces led by King of Poland John III Sobieski against the Ottoman Empire army commanded by Grand Vizier Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha. The Battle of Warsaw - sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula - was the decisive battle of the Polish–Soviet War (1918 until the Treaty of Riga (1921).The battle of Warsaw was fought from 13 to 25 August 1920. On August 16, Polish forces commanded by Józef Piłsudski counterattacked from the south, forcing the Russian forces into a disorganised withdrawal eastward and behind the Neman River. It was an outstanding event as it stopped Bolsheviks’ expansion. A bulletproof vest – It’s a special clothing which looks like a waist-coat. It protects from a bullet of revolver, a rifle or shotgun. It is used by police, army, bodyguards or common people in countries where law allows citizens to posses & carry guns. It was invented by Jan Szczepanik and Kazimierz Zeglen in 1902. A periscope – an optical device used to look over the top of something, especially to see out o submarine. It was constructed of a long tube and two mirrors. It is applied in the army. The inventor of periscope is Jan Heweliusz. Cryptologic bomb – an appliance created by Polish cryptographers: Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Różtcki and Henryk Zygalski. The cryptologic bomb was aimed at cracking the code of German code machine – Enigma. The phenomenon of this invention was that Germans said that the code of Enigma was impossible to break. Armoured car “wz. 29” – This car was produced between 1930-1931. Interestingly, it had two drivers. One of them was driving when the car went ahead and the other one while backed out. It was good because it didn’t have to turn back. Parrafin lamp – made by Ignacy Lukasiewicz in 1853. It was an effect of distillation oil. Thanks to it, oil industry came into being. The paraffin lamp gave a rise to an electric lamp which we are still using nowadays. MARIA SKŁODOWSKA CURIE was born in 1867. She spent the larger part of her life in France, where she finished chemical studies at the Sorbonne University in Paris. She made a great contribution to European science thanks to radioactivity research and the discovery of two new elements: polonium and radium. She received the Nobel Prize twice, in 1903 in the field of physics, and in 1911 in the sphere of chemistry. She remains till today the only woman honored with this prize twice. We owe her the evolution of a new science – radioactivity. NICOLAUS COPERNICUS (February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was the first astronomer to formulate a scientifically-based heliocentric cosmology that displaced the Earth from the center of the universe. His epochal book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres) is often regarded as the starting point of modern astronomy and the defining epiphany that began the Scientific Revolution. Mirosław Hermaszewski (born September 15, 1941), is a retired Polish Air Force officer. He became the first (and to this day remains the only) Pole in space when he flew aboard the Soyuz 30 spacecraft in 1978. During martial law in Poland Hermaszewski was a member of the Military Council of National Salvation, a military quasigovernment. After that he was a commander of the Fighter Pilots School in Dęblin. In 1988 he was promoted to general. Aleksander Wolszczan - astronomer and discoverer of the first extra solar planetary system – candidate for Nobel prize. Andrzej Udalski - author of photometric method aimed at discovering planets in galaxy China welcomed the world to the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games on Friday 8th of August with the roll of two thousand drums and a battering fireworks, smokes and varied lights. There were 91,000 people In the National Stadium, popularly known as the ‘Bird’s Nest’. It was a wonderful show. The first success for Poland was achieved by Tomasz Majewski. He won the gold medal in shot put. Winning handball and volleyball players also cheered up that day. Sunday 17th was the lucky day for our sportsmen. It brought four medals! Our quadruple sculls got a gold medal and four without coxswain received a silver medal. Moreover, Agnieszka Wieszczek, the debutant on an Olympic Games, won a brown medal in wrestling beating Maider Unda from Spain in final. But this was not the end. Szymon Kołecki became a vice master in weightlifting. The next day was also satisfying. The gold medal was awarded to Łukasz Blanik in artistic gymnastics. The Polish team drew even with France in handball, and the men’s volleyball team defeated the Russians. Furthermore, Piotr Małachowski won a silver medal in discus throwing on Tuesday hte 19th It was the eighth medal for our representation. On Saturday the 23rd we had an occasion to celebrate the next and the last two silver medals. The first medal for Maja Włoszczowska in Cycling Mountain Bike and the second for Aneta Konieczna i Beata Mikołajczyk in K-2 500m kayak double. And that’s all. Olympic Games in Beijing were finished by the Polish representation with three gold, six silver medals and one brown medal. There were nice surprises but also losses about which it is better to forget. 2001 - CHURCHES OF PEACE IN JAWOR AND ŚWIDNICA The Churches of Peace in Jawor and Swidnica were built in the former Silesia in the mid-17th century, amid the religious strife that followed the Peace of Westphalia. Constrained by the physical and political conditions, the Churches of Peace bear testimony to the quest for religious freedom and are a rare expression of Lutheran ideology in an idiom generally associated with the Catholic Church. 2003 - WOODEN CHURCHES OF SOUTHERN LITTLE POLAND The wooden churches of southern Little Poland represent outstanding examples of the different aspects of medieval church-building traditions in Roman Catholic culture. Built using the horizontal log technique, common in eastern and northern Europe since the Middle Ages, these churches were sponsored by noble families and became status symbols. They offered an alternative to the stone structures erected in urban centres. 2004 - PARK MUŻAKOWSKI A landscaped park of 559.9 ha astride the Neisse River and the border between Poland and Germany. Blending seamlessly with the surrounding farmed landscape, the park pioneered new approaches to landscape design and influenced the development of landscape architecture in Europe and America. This integrated landscape extends into the town of Muskau with green passages that formed urban parks framing areas for development. The town thus became a design component in a utopian landscape. The site also features a reconstructed castle, bridges and an arboretum. 2006 - THE CENTENNIAL HALL IN WROCŁAW The Centennial Hall, a landmark in the history of reinforced concrete architecture, was erected in 1911-1913 by the architect Max Berg as a multi-purpose recreational building, situated in the Exhibition Grounds. The 23m-high dome is topped with a lantern in steel and glass. The Centennial Hall is a pioneering work of modern engineering and architecture.