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INFO.
Present Tense
Mrs. Pacheco
Spanish I-IV
Vocabulario
En la Escuela
La cafetería
La biblioteca
La cancha
La clase de
Química
El gimnacio
El auditorio
El estadio
La piscina
La oficina
Grammar:
Regular Present Tense Verbs
 Verbs—to talk about things you do, you use the
present tense.
 To form the present tense of a regular verb, drop the –
ar, -er, or, –ir and add the appropiate ending.
 Regular Verbs:
-ar
Hablar > hablo, hablas, habla, hablamos, habláis, hablan
-er
-ir
Comer > como, comes, come, comemos, coméis, comen
Vivir > vivo, vives, vive, vivimos, vivís, viven.
-ar
Verbo
Objetivo
indirecto
Presente
Bailar
Yo
Bailo
Bailar
Tú
Bailas
Bailar
Usted
Baila
Bailar
Él
Baila
Bailar
Ella
Baila
Bailar
Nosotros
Bailamos
Bailar
Vosotros
Bailáis
Bailar
Ustedes
Bailan
Bailar
Ellos/Ellas
Bailan
-er
Verbo
Objetivo
indirecto
Presente
pretender
Yo
pretendo
pretender
Tú
pretendes
pretender
Usted
pretende
pretender
Él
pretende
pretender
Ella
pretende
pretender
Nosotros
pretendemos
pretender
Vosotros
pretendéis
pretender
Ustedes
pretenden
pretender
Ellos/Ellas
pretenden
-ir
Verbo
Objetivo
indirecto
Presente
Insistir
Yo
insisto
Insistir
Tú
insistes
Insistir
Usted
insiste
Insistir
Él
insiste
Insistir
Ella
insiste
Insistir
Nosotros
insistimos
Insistir
Vosotros
insistís
Insistir
Ustedes
insisten
Insistir
Ellos/Ellas
insisten
Reminders:
1. Most present tense verb forms have several
equivalents in English. For example, the form
hablo may be translated in numerous ways:






I speak (customary action)
I am speaking (action in progress)
I do speak (emphatic form)
I will speak (near future action)
do I speak (interrogative form)
I have been speaking (action started in the past but
still in progrerss)
Reminders
2. The subject pronouns that accompany these verbs
are:
Singular
Plural
Yo
I
Nosotros(as)
we
Tú
You
Vosotros(as)
You (familiar, Spain)
usted
You (formal)
Ustedes
You (all)
Él
he
Ellos
They (male)
Ella
she
Ellas
They (female)
Cont.
3. The formal second-person forms (usted and
ustedes) take third-person forms of a verb:
•
•
•
•
Ustedes hablan bien.
You (plural) speak very well.
Usted es norteamericana, no?
You (sing.) are an American, right?
Irregular Verbs
Division of syllables
Diphthongs
Stressed syllables
Accentuation
Present Indicative of Verbs -Stem changing
verbs
These verbs are also referred to as “radical
changing verbs”; the word radical in Spanish
means “stem” or “root”. The stem vowel
undergoes a change when it is stressed in the
present tense. [These verbs do not so change
in any other tense —except for -ir verbs,
which experience a stem change in the -ndo
form, in the present subjunctive and in the
preterit.]
1. o > ue (the stem vowel o changes to ue
when stressed)
 Acostar (put to bed) acuesto, acuestas, acuesta,
acostamos, acostáis, acuestan
 Volver (return, go back) vuelvo, vuelves, vuelve,
volvemos, volvéis, vuelven
 Dormir (sleep) duermo, duermes, duerme,
dormimos, dormís, duermen
 Similar verbs: acordarse (remember), almorzar (eat
lunch), apostar (bet), contar (count, relate), costar
(cost), encontrar (find), llover (rain), morir (die),
mover (move), oler (smell), poder (be able), probar
(try, prove), recordar (remember), rogar (beg),
sonar (sound), soñar (dream), volar (fly).
2. e > ie (the stem vowel e changes to ie when
stressed):
 Empezar (begin) empiezo, empiezas, empieza, empezamos,
empezáis, empiezan
 Querer (want) quiero, quieres, quiere, queremos, queréis,
quieren
 sentir (feel) siento, sientes, siente, sentimos, sentís, sienten
 Similar verbs: advertir (notice), atravesar (cross), calentar
(heat), cerrar (close), comenzar (begin), convertir (convert),
defender (defend), despertar (awaken), divertir (amuse),
empezar (begin), gobernar (govern), herir (injure), pensar
(think), perder (lose) querer (want), sentir (feel, regret),
tropezar (stumble).
3. e > i (the stem vowel e changes to i when
stressed; -ir verbs only):
Pedir (request, ask for) pido, pides, pide,
pedimos, pedís, piden
Similar verbs: competir (compete), conseguir
(get), corregir (correct), derretir (melt),
despedir (fire, say goodbye), elegir (elect),
medir (measure), reír (laugh), servir (serve),
seguir (follow, continue), sonreír (smile),
repetir (repeat), vestir (dress).
4. u > ue (the stem vowel u changes to ue
when stressed [in the verb jugar only]):
Jugar (play [a game or sport]) juego, juegas,
juega, jugamos, jugáis, juegan
Verbs with an irregular first person
singular (yo) form
 c > zc in the yo form:
 Conocer (know, be aquainted with [people or places]) conozco,
conoces, conoce, conocemos, conocéis, conocen.
 This is the usual pattern for verbs whose infinitive ends in -cer
or -cir: acontecer (happen), agradecer (thank), amanecer
(dawn), aparecer (appear), conducir (drive, conduct), crecer
(grow), enflaquecerse (get thin), enriquecerse (get rich),
envejecerse (get older), establecer (establish),
merecer(deserve), nacer (be born), obedecer (obey), ofrecer
(offer), padecer (suffer), parecer (seem), permanecer
(remain), producir (produce), reducir (reduce), and traducir
(translate).
appearance of g in the yo form:
 Caer (fall) caigo, caes, cae, caemos, caéis, caen
 Traer (bring) traigo, traes, trae, traemos, traéis, traen
 Decir (day, tell)*digo, dices, dice, decimos, decís, dicen
 Hacer (do, make) hago, haces, hace, hacemos, hacéis, hacen
 Poner put, set) pongo, pones, pone, ponemos, ponéis, ponen
 Salir (leave, go out) salgo, sales, sale, salimos, salís, salen
 Tener (have)*tengo, tienes, tiene, tenemos, tenéis, tienen
 Valer (be worth) valgo, vales, vale, valemos, valéis, valen
 Venir (come)*vengo, vienes, viene, venimos, venís, vienen
*These are also stem changing verbs.
Other types of yo form changes:
Caber (fit [in something]) quepo, cabes, cabe,
cabemos, cabéis, caben
Dar (give) doy, das, da, damos, dais, dan
Saber (know [facts]) sé, sabes, sabe, sabemos,
sabéis, saben
Ver (see) veo, ves, ve, vemos, veis, ven
Verbs which add an accent over a final
weak vowel
 The vowels i and u are “weak vowels” in contrast to the
“strong vowels” a, e, and o. When they come in contact with
any other vowel they normally form a diphthong; the addition
of a written accent keeps this diphthongization from occurring.
Such accents are necessary for some verbs because the i and u
are the stem vowels:
 Continuar continúo, continúas, continúa, continuamos, continuáis,
continúan
(“I continue, you continue”, etc. Note that the unaccented words
continuo and continua, are adjectives meaning “continuous”.)
 Enviar envío, envías, envía, enviamos, enviáis, envían
(“I send, you send”, etc.)
 Similar verbs: actuar (act), efectuar (bring about), graduar
(graduate), confiar (trust), criar (raise, bring up), esquiar
(ski), vaciar (empty).
With most other verbs the i and u are not stem
vowels, and thus form diphthongs:
 Copiar copio, copias, copia, copiamos, copiáis,
copiaron
(forms of the verb “to copy”; the i is not stressed)
 Similar verbs: anunciar (announce), apreciar
(appreciate), asociar (associate), cambiar (change),
divorciar (divorce), ensuciar (dirty), estudiar
(study), iniciar (initiate), limpiar (clean), negociar
(negociate), renunciar (renounce).
Verbs like huir.
 Verbs whose infinitive ends in -uir (but not -guir)
insert a y in present tense endings whenever the
ending does not contain the sound “i”, that is, in all
forms except for nosotros and vosotros.
 Huir (flee) huyo, huyes, huye, huimos, huís, huyen
 Verbs conjugated like huir: construir (construct),
contribuir, (contribute), disminuir, (diminish),
incluir (include), influir (influence).
Irregular verbs
 The following verbs are completely irregular (usually
because of the way they evolved from Latin) or
display characteristics so rare as to be considered
“irregular” for our purposes.
 Estar (to be) estoy, estás, está, estamos, estáis, están
 Ser (to be) soy, eres, es, somos, sois, son
 Ir (go) voy, vas, va, vamos, vais, van
 Oler (smell) huelo, hueles, huele, olemos, oléis,
huelen
[Oler is a stem changing verb; however, no word can
begin with ue in Spanish, so an initial h is added.]
Orthographic changes
 Some verbs exhibit orthographic or spelling changes to
maintain the same pronunciation of the final stem consonant:
 g > j: Verbs whose infinitive form ends in -gir change the g to
j before an a or an o.
 Dirigir (direct) dirijo, diriges, dirige, dirigimos, dirigís,
dirigen
 Elegir (elect) elijo, eliges, elige, elegimos, elegís, eligen
[Elegir is also a stem changing verb, where the e changes to i.]
 More verbs in this category: corregir (correct), exigir
(require), fingir (pretend), and surgir (arise).
gu > g: Verbs whose infinitive form ends in guir drop the u before an a or an o.
Distinguir (distinguish) distingo, distingues,
distingue, distinguimos...
Other verbs like this include seguir (follow,
continue; e>i) and its compounds: conseguir
(get, obtain) and perseguir (pursue).
-ACCEACCENTUATIONTHE RULES OF STRESS
1. Words that end in a vowel, or in the consonants
n or s, normally are stressed (accented) on the
next to the last syllable.
Ex: ju-lio, a-mi-go, u-no, fe-cha, tra-ba-jo
2. Words that end in a consonant, other than n or s,
usually receive the stress on the last syllable.
Ex: ve-nir, ac-triz, le-er, ca-lor, pa-pel, mu-jer
3. Words which are not stressed according to these
two rules bear a written accent on the syllable
that is stressed in pronunciation.
Ex: fá-cil, a-quí, di-fí-cil, ár-bo-les
Invariable
 There is one verb which never changes in the present tense.
Hay (“there is”, “there are”, from the infinitive haber) has
only one form in the present indicative. The same form is used
for both singular and plural subjects (or complements):
 Hay muchos españoles en tu clase?Are there many Spaniards in your
class?
 No, sólo hay uno.No, there is only one.
 Note: This carries over to the other tenses as well: it is only
used in a singular form, even when used with plural
subjects/complements:
 Había tres chicas en la esquina.There were three girls on the corner
 .Hubo dos accidentes aquí ayer.There were 2 accidents here
yesterday.
Usage of the present tense Special case:
 The present tense with hacer in expressions of time. As
indicated at the beginning, the present tense is used to indicate
an action in progress, and this is true even if the action began
in past time but the emphasis is on the present time. This is
frequently seen with the hacer + expression of time
construction:
 Hace un mes que busco una casa nueva.I've been looking for a new
house for a month.or:
 Busco una casa nueva desde hace un mes.
 Note that if the hace clause may be used either before or after
the main verb; if used afterwards, desde is inserted before
hace.
¿Dónde?
 Completa las oraciones e indica dónde tienen
lugar las actividades (regular present tense verbs).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Nosotros (comer) el almuerzo en __________.
Mis amigos (nadar) en _____________.
Tú (leer) literatura en ________________.
Yo (hablo) Español en ________________.
En la clase de educación física, ustedes (correr) en
____________.
6. Él (tener) que ir a ____________ para registrarse.
C/W 4/27/10-4/28/10
¿A dónde van?
The verb ir is used
when you talk about
where someone is
going, you use the
verb ir, to go.
Voy (yo)
Vas (tú)
Va (él/ella/usted)
Vamos (nosotros)
Vais (vosotros)
Van (ustedes/ellos(as))
¿A dónde van estas personas en la
escuela?
 Jorge necesita tomar una prueba de
computadoras. Va a la clase de
computación.
Contesta:
1. Comemos el almuerzo.
2. Buscas información sobre Puerto
Rico.
3. Practico deportes en mi próxima
clase.
4. Juegan al tenis.
5. Nadamos hoy en la clase de
educación física.
6. Tomo una prueba de plantas y
animales.
C/W-H/W 4/28/10-4/29/10
Review: Reflexive Verbs
The subject and the object are the
same with reflexive verbs - the
subject acts upon itself. A reflexive
verb in Spanish will be marked with
se attached to the end of the
infinitive. These verbs are
conjugated like regular verbs, except
the reflexive pronoun agrees with
case and gender and precedes the
verb when not used in the infinitive
form. Reciprocal verbs are the same
as reflexive except the action passes
from one person to another. It can
only be used in the first and third
person plural forms. Reflexive verbs
sometimes use the "-self" forms in
English, while the reciprocal verbs
use "each other."
 Reflexive Pronouns
me te se nos os se
 Some common reflexive
verbs:
acostarse - to go to bed
Peinarse – to comb
Cepillarse – to brush
Lavarse – to wash
bañarse - to bathe oneself
casarse - to get married
despertarse - to wake up
irse - to go away
levantarse - to rise
sentarse - to sit down
vestirse - to dress oneself
atreverse - to dare
quejarse - to complain
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