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True Friends (1)

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True Friends (1)
The Last Leaf
O. Henry
Pre-reading Task
True Friends
True Friends (1)
People today, in all this new world
technology and thinking, have lost sight of
what a true friendship is. So, in sprit of my
best friend Tellie, I thought I would help the
world out a little and explain what real, true
friends are.
True Friends (2)
1. Friends don't have to be exactly the
same. Friends have similarities but they also
have their differences. They key to opening
up the world of friendship is not only to
expand on similarities but to accept each
other's faults. Because you can't ever judge
your friend.
True Friends (3)
2. Friends have to argue! No one likes to
but it is necessary to be healthy. Cause if
you agree on everything, either the
government has expanded cloning subjects
or someone isn't being true and is trying a
little too hard.
True Friends (4)
3. You have to be comfortable together or
else you just aren't going to click. If you feel
edgy around the person then something
isn't quite right.
True Friends (5)
4. Friends love unconditionally. They
have there little angry moments but what's
done is done and all is forgive and forget.
Why let something that happened in the past
ruin what happiness you could have in the
future?
True Friends (6)
5. Believe in love at first sight because
there is the equivalent in friendship. Some
people think that you have to know someone
really well to become good friends. Trust me,
it's not true. If the first time you really
spend time together you talk for 25 hours
straight until 4:30 in the morning about
some topic you thought no one else in the
world understood, hun, that's real love at
first sight.
True Friends (7)
These are only a few of the basics. Just
remember, friends are forever. But only if
you keep it that way. Don't diss your buds,
love them instead. And when they drive you
nuts, love them that much more for being
just a little bit different and maybe just a
little bit quirky!
Once more
Questions for discussion
1. What is your definition of friendship?
2. Faith, hope and charity are traditionally
grouped together as three important
virtues. What do you think of it?
3. Some say that charity begins at home, that
we should take care of those closest to us
rather than worrying about strangers. What
do you think of that?
4. Can you figure out what the stories of this
unit are going to be about?
Cultural Notes
Who is him?
O. Henry (1862-1910)
O. Henry (1862-1910): pseudonym of
William Sydney Porter(1862-1910), American
writer of short stories, best known for his
ironic plot twists and surprise endings.
Born and raised in Greensboro, North
Carolina, O. Henry attended school only
only until age 15, when he dropped out to
work in his uncle’s drugstore.
During his 20s he moved to Texas, where he
worked for more than ten years as a clerk
and a bank teller. O. Henry did not write
professionally until he reached his mid-30s,
when he sold several pieces to the Detroit
Free Press and the Houston Daily Post. In
1894 he founded a short-lived weekly humor
magazine, The Rolling Stone.
In 1896 O. Henry was charged with
embezzling funds from the First National
Bank of Austin, Texas, where he had
worked from 1891 to 1894. The amount of
money was small and might have been an
accounting error; however, he chose to flee
to Honduras rather than stand trial.
Learning that his wife was dying, he
returned to Texas in 1897 and, after her
death, turned himself in to the authorities.
He served three years of a five-year sentence
a the federal penitentiary in Columbus, Ohio,
where he first began to write short stories
and use the pseudonym O. Henry.
Released from prison, O. Henry moved to
New York City in 1901 and began writing full
time. In his storieds he made substantial use
of his knowledge of Texas, Central America,
and life in prison. He also became
fascinated by New York street life, which
provided a setting for many of his later
stories.
During the last ten years of his life, O.
Henry became one of the most popular
writers in America, publishing over 500 short
stories in dozens of widely read periodicals.
O. Henry’s most famous stories, such as
“The Gift of the Magi,” “The Furnished
Room,” and “The Ransom of Red Chief,”
make simple yet effective use of paradoxical
coincidences to produce ironic endings.
For example, in “The Gift of the Magi” a
husband sells his watch to buy his wife a
Christmas present of a pair of hair combs;
but, she cuts and sells her long hair to buy
him a Christmas present of a new chain for
his watch. His style of storytelling became a
model not only for short fiction, but also for
American motion pictures and television
programs.
Writing at the rate of more than one story
per week, O. Henry published ten
collections of stories during a career that
barely spanned a decade. They are
Cabbages and Kings (1904), The Four
Million (1906), Heart of the West (1907), The
trimmed Lamp (1907), The Gentle Grafte
r(1908), The Voice of the City(1908),
Options(1909), Roads of Destiny(1909),
Whirligigs(1910), and Strictly Business(1910).
The collections Sixes and Sevens (1911),
Rolling Stones (1912), and for the best
American short stories published each year
were founded by the Society of Arts and
Sciences. The Complete Works of O. Henry
was published in 1953.
The last leaf
Pre-questions (1)
Q1: What was, at first, Johnsy determined to
do if the last ivy leaf should fall?
A1: She made up her mind to die when the
last leaf fell.
Q2: What did she decide to do when she saw
the last leaf still cling to the vine after two
nights’ rain and wind?
A2: She decided not to give up her life.
Pre-questions (2)
Q3: How was it that the cold fierce wind did
not blow away the last leaf ?
A3: Behrman, a kind neighbor, who was
aware of Johnsy’s state of mind, risked
death to paint the last leaf and save her.
Q4: Why did Sue call the painted leaf
Behrman’s masterpiece?
A4: Because it was so perfect the girls both
mistook it for the real thing.
Text Organization
Scenes Paragraphs
Characters
Events
1
Paraa 1-2
Sue, Johnsy Sue’s roommate Johnsy
caught pneumonia
2
Paras 3-8
3
Paras 9-17
The doctor, The doctor told Sue that
Sue
Johnsy needed a strong
will to live on.
Johnsy, Sue Johnsy decided that she
would die when the last
ivy leaf fell.
4
Paras 18-21 Behrman,
Sue
Sue told Behrman about
Johnsy’s fancy.
Text Organization
Scenes Paragraphs Characters Events
5
Paras 2233
Sue,
Johnsy
6
Paras 3437
The doctor, The doctor told Sue that
Sue
Johnsy would recover, but
Behrman caught pneumonia
himself and his case was
hopeless
7
Paras 3839
Sue,
Johnsy
As Johnsy was encouraged by
the last leaf that wouldn’t
give in to the weather, her
will to live returned.
Sue told Johnsy that Behrman
had performed a kind deed
without any thought of self
Language Study: in tune
in tune: harmonious(ly (often followed by with;
the opposite: out of tune))
Examples:
 His ideas are in tune with the times.
 The price of gold coins fluctuates in tune
with that of commodities.
 Her character is quite out of tune with her
beauty.
Language Study: joint
joint: held or done by two or more persons together
Examples:

She had taken he money out of the joint account
she had with her husband.

There are a number of different forms of
business ownership, such as partnerships
corporations and joint ventures.

To attract foreign capital, China issued new
economic regulations giving more preferential
treatment to joint ventures.
Language Study: stalk
stalk: (of and evil force) move through (a
place) in a threatening way, move quietly
and cautiously in order to get near
Example:
 When night falls, danger stalks the streets
of the city.
Language Study: here and there
here and there: in various places
Example:
 During the summer vacation he will do a
bit of teaching here and there.
Language Study: victim
victim: person, animal, etc. suffering death,
injury or loss
Example:
 Police and hospital records indicate that
the majority of victims of domestic
violence are women.
Language Study: scarcely
scarcely: not quite; almost not
Example:
 I can scarcely remember when I last ate
home-baked bread.
Language Study: merry
merry: happy; cheerful; bright and gay
Example:
 From the other room, we could hear the
merry sound of laughter and glasses
clinking.
Language Study: backward
backward: with the back or end first
Example:
 The helicopter can travel forward,
backward, or sideways.
Language Study: bare
bare: without covering, clothing, or decoration
Example:
 Soil held in place by plant roots is less
likely to blow or wash away than bare soil.
Language Study: dreary
dreary: dull; gloomy; causing low spirits
Example:
 By the time they had waited five hours for
their delayed flight, everyone looked dreary.
Language Study: in a whisper
in a whisper: in a low voice
Example:
 He bent down and addressed her in a
whisper.
Language Study: hear of
hear of : be old about or have knowledge of
Examples:
 Three weeks passed, and nothing was
heard of the missing boy.
Language Study: nonsense
nonsense: foolish talk, ideas, behavior
Example:
 I think the report is nonsense and nothing
but a waste of paper.
Language Study: turn loose
turn loose: allow ( sth.) to be free of control
Example:
 The sick whale will be taken care of by the
scientists before being turned loose.
Language Study: look the part
look the part: have an appearance for a
particular job, role, or position
Example:
 I think he must be a captain---- he
certainly looks the part.
Language Study: masterpiece
masterpiece: a piece of work, esp. art, which
is the best of its type or the best a person
has done
Example:
 The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn is
considered Mark Twain’s masterpiece.
Language Study: to excess
to excess: to an extreme degree
Example:
 His father never smoked or drank to excess.
Language Study: for the rest
for the rest: as regards other matters
Example:
 The book contains some interesting
passages about the author’s childhood. For
the rest, it is rather dull
Language Study: fierce
fierce: 1) violent and angry
Example:
 A fierce police dog was chained to a wall.
2) intense; strong
Example:
 The world is becoming a global market,
and the competition is fierce.
Language Study: mock
mock: ridicule; make fun of (used in the
pattern: mock at sb./sth.)
Example:
 They mocked at him and called him a
coward.
Language Study: fancy
fancy: sth. Imagined; unfounded opinion or
belief
Example:
 The river streamed past my house.
Language Study: stream
stream: move in a continuous flow, pour out
Example:
 The river streamed past my house.
Language Study: persistent
persistent: continuing; occurring again and
again
Example:
 Neither high prices nor high wages could
explain persistent depression and mass
unemployment.
Language Study: mingle
mingle: mix (followed by with)
Example:
 The singer’s style mingles jazz and
country music.
Language Study: pull up
pull up: raise
Example:
 I sat at my desk, knees pulled up to my
chin.
Language Study: stand out
stand out: be easily seen above or among
others
Example:
 The working experience in Microsoft last
year still stand out in my mind.
Language Study: wear away
wear away: 1) (of time) pass gradually
Example:
 They didn’t reach an agreement. Instead
they wore the afternoon away in arguing.
2) (cause to) become thin or damaged by
constant use
Example:
 The steps have been worn away by the feet
of thousands of visitors.
Language Study: cling to
cling to: hold tight to
Example:
 The child is clinging to his mother’s legs.
Language Study: call to
call to: attract the attention of (sb.) by
speaking out
Example:
 The fisherman called to the villagers on
the shore.
Language Study: sin
sin: offence against God, religion or good
morals
Example:
 In Christian theology, the first sin was
committed by Adam.
Language Study: sit up
sit up: raise yourself into an upright sitting
position after you have been lying down or
leaning back
Example:
 The patient is well enough to sit up in bed
now.
Language Study: acute
acute: 1) (of diseases) coming quickly to the
critical stage
Example:
 She was taken to the hospital suffering
from acute appendicitis.
2) severe
Example:
 The company is said to be suffering from
acute financial difficulties.
Language Study: be wet through
be wet through: be wet all over
Example:
 My mother came home wet through.
Language Study: flutter
flutter: (cause to) move about in a quick,
irregular way
Example:
 The ugly ducking fluttered into the milkpan, and splashed the milk about the room.
Post-questions: (for group discussion)
1. Which character in the story impresses you
most? Why?
2. What is the essential message the writer
wants to convey to his readers through the
story? Is it of social significance? Explain.
3. What do you think can support you in your
moments of depression, despair or a
setback?
Translation
Translate the following passage into English, using
the words and phrases given below:
 Bare cling to
fancy here and there in tune
look the part masterpiece persistent to
excess
stand out
我们到处都能看到“抢眼”的青年艺术家。他们要
么一年四季穿着破旧的牛在裤;要么大冬天也打
赤脚;要么饮酒过度;要么就是抱着创作一部杰
作的幻想,实际上并不作任何创作的事。其实,
他们中的很多人只不过是为了看上去像名艺术家,
或为了同其他艺术家“保持一致”才这么做的。
他们忘了,只有通过不懈的努力才能获得成功。
Translation: Keys
Here and there we see young artists who stand
out from other people. They may be in worn out
jeans all year round, or walk barefoot/ in bare feet
even in winter, or drink to excess, or cling to the
fancy of creating a masterpiece without actually
doing any creative work. In fact, many of them act
like this just to look the part, or to be “in tune with”
other artists. They have forgotten that only
through persistent effort can one achieve success.
Test B: Key words exercises (1)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Many campers are tempted by backpacks with
extra_______, zippers and other options, but a simple,
well-made pack is sufficient on most trips.
Born in Boston, American natural history writer
Elizabeth Cary was educated at home because of
________health.
Abstract expressionism involves_______ and splashing
paint in an impulsive, loosely controlled manner without
any predetermined design.
Biological clocks release a hormone that__________
complex behaviors in humans and animals alike.
__________, play fair. That is what every mother teaches
her child to do.
Test B: Key words exercises (2)
6.
Early women basketball players were prohibited
from______ the ball from the hands of another player.
7. The Ford Trimotor, the first plane designed to carry
passengers rather than mail, had an interior cabin with a
ceiling high enough for people to walk down the aisle
without________.
8. The Andrew Johnson Homestead, where US President
Johnson lived between 1851 and 1875, is __________with
his original articles.
9. With 1300 meters remaining, Barbara and Decker Slaney
were among the group of leading runners. However, the
two bumped, causing Barbara to ________.
10. Although all Americans do not speak the same way, their
speech _________enough ________so that American
English can be recognized as a variety of English
different from British English, Australian English, etc.
Test B: Key words exercises (3)
11. _____________ of the Cluny Museum is a large beautiful
garden.
12. Shellery felt a _______ at her heart at the sudden
attraction of him, the perfect body and the face that
looked so much more natural and attractive out here in
the warm southern wind.
13. Dealing with your children’s friends who
__________round in the evening calls for diplomacy and
the setting of time limits.
14. Aunt Louise seemed to swell up, her eyes about to
________of her head.
15. Hearing her baby scream all of a sudden, Robyn made a
_________for the bedroom.
Test B: Key words exercises (4)
16. Some managed to _________their boat while
others were swept uncontrollably downstream.
17. When the thief saw a police officer coming, he
___________in the other direction.
18. They were working_________ in order to finish
the assignment on time.
19. If you are __________Sam Walton, you will
become a better person.
20. I expect a handsome paycheck when I
_________translating this book.
Keys: Key words exercises (1)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Many campers are tempted by backpacks with extra
_straps_, zippers and other options, but a simple, wellmade pack is sufficient on most trips.
Born in Boston, American natural history writer
Elizabeth Cary was educated at home because of _frail_
health.
Abstract expressionism involves _dripping_ and
splashing paint in an impulsive, loosely controlled
manner without any predetermined design.
Biological clocks release a hormone that _swiches on_
complex behaviors in humans and animals alike.
_Behave yourself_, play fair. That is what every mother
teaches her child to do.
Keys: Key words exercises (2)
6.
Early women basketball players were prohibited from
_snatching_ the ball from the hands of another player.
7. The Ford Trimotor, the first plane designed to carry
passengers rather than mail, had an interior cabin with a
ceiling high enough for people to walk down the aisle
without _stooping_.
8. The Andrew Johnson Homestead, where US President
Johnson lived between 1851 and 1875, is _furnished_ with
his original articles.
9. With 1300 meters remaining, Barbara and Decker Slaney
were among the group of leading runners. However, the
two bumped, causing Barbara to _lose her balance_.
10. Although all Americans do not speak the same way, their
speech _has_ enough _in common_ so that American
English can be recognized as a variety of English different
from British English, Australian English, etc.
Keys: Key words exercises (3)
11. _At the rear of_ of the Cluny Museum is a large beautiful
garden.
12. Shellery felt a _tug_ at her heart at the sudden attraction
of him, the perfect body and the face that looked so
much more natural and attractive out here in the warm
southern wind.
13. Dealing with your children’s friends who _pop_ round in
the evening calls for diplomacy and the setting of time
limits.
14. Aunt Louise seemed to swell up, her eyes about to _pop
out_ of her head.
15. Hearing her baby scream all of a sudden, Robyn made a
_dash_ for the bedroom.
Keys: Key words exercises (4)
16. Some managed to _catch hold of_ their boat
while others were swept uncontrollably
downstream.
17. When the thief saw a police officer coming, he
_took off_ in the other direction.
18. They were working _(at) full blast_ in order to
finish the assignment on time.
19. If you are _in contact with_ Sam Walton, you will
become a better person.
20. I expect a handsome paycheck when I _am/get
through with_ translating this book.
Test B: Comprehension Check
Choose the best answer for each of the
following:
1. The boy fell because____
A. the lady pushed him
B. the purse was heavy
C. it was dark
D. he was running too fast
2. The first thing the lady did was to_____
A.
B.
C.
D.
make the boy pick up her purse
make the boy apologize
shake the boy
kick the boy
3. In answer to the woman’s question, the
boy____
A.
B.
C.
D.
lied
replied truthfully
cried
stayed silent
4.
A.
B.
C.
D.
We can infer that the woman___
owned the house
rented the house
rented a room in the house
none of the above
5.
We can learn from the story that the
boy____
A. was beaten by his parents
B. had no parents to care for him
C. was stealing because he was hungry
D. disliked school
6.
The woman told the boy that____
A. she too had been poor, but had not tried to
steal
B. she had also done bad things when she was
young
C. she knew he was lying when he said he wanted
the money for shoes
D. she knew it was like to have no one to care for
one
Comprehension Check: Keys
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
B
D
B
C
B
B
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