Differentiate or Die! A toolkit for using differentiated instruction to reach every student What is DI? To differentiate instruction is to recognize students' varying background knowledge, readiness, language, preferences in learning and interests; and to react responsively. Differentiated instruction is a process to teaching and learning for students of differing abilities in the same class. The intent of differentiating instruction is to maximize each student's growth and individual success by meeting each student where he or she is and assisting in the learning process. Start out by using a manageable DI tool Keep trying small steps & work toward reaching all learners Di is giving choices, doing different things to meet different needs of learners, learning by doing, gearing to knowledge base of learners, reaching all students… Implementing DI Start small. Don’t give up. Keep trying small steps like dangling your toes in the bathtub! At the end of today you will have a toolkit of DI strategies ready to use. Refer to your toolkit for survival. What is Flexible Grouping? Flexible Grouping is students consistently working in: a variety of groups… based on different elements of their learning… and both homogeneous and heterogeneous. General Principles of Flexible Grouping Vary groups frequently enough that there is no stigma attached to one particular formation Group size under 4 is ideal to ensure that all students in the group participate Be conscious of conferring status to all students Assign roles within the group to facilitate the management of the group Debrief with students (collectively, individually) about the group dynamics, process Set management procedures in place to ensure smooth working of teams VOCABULARY STRATEGIES ACTIVITY SHOW, DON'T TELL Random Grouping Find three people around you and get together Look at the words on the screen Select one word for your group to use Pick someone to get a card with the definition Develop a symbol, a motion, and a picture to define the word Share with the large group Share how you will use this in your classroom SHOW, DON'T TELL Word List Astound: To fill with wonder Confine: To keep within limits Elusive: Hard to describe or understand Extinguish: To put out, do away with Longevity: A long duration Persistent: Refusing to give up Remote: Far off in place or time Spectacular: Impressive Taunt: To insult or ridicule Vital: Having to do or necessary Toolkit Handout Distribute We will use a toolkit handout for you to fill out as we progress through the day Be sure to fill out this handout as the day progresses. This will be the basis of your toolkit! SUMMARIZING ACTIVITY I Have, Who Has? Distribute cards to 14 volunteers One side of card is an answer, the other side has a question First person will begin by asking “Who has…” The person with the answer will say “I have…” and then ask their question – play continues until all questions have been answered. Think-pair-share about how can this be used in your classrooms and record ideas on your toolkit handout. When to DI DI when some students have already mastered the learning goal/concept standard and others have not. When some students need more time on a learning goal/concept standard and others are ready to move on. This could mean that a group of students will need more modeling, more examples, more practice, more independence, or more depth and/or complexity. DI addresses those needing to “get the basics” while letting the others who already have it proceed deeper into the content. DI when the need arises - not everyday, just periodically. ACTIVITY - Teaching Vocabulary in Context Meaningful Sentences DIRECTIONS Display words and put students in groups for this activity Each group has one person take on the role of teacher to create oral sentences from one of the words on the master list to help the “students” develop their definition of the word. Example: With the word cooperative, a possible sentence might be “Billy and I have to play all day so my mother says we have to be cooperative and share our toys all day.” Pose question: What do you think cooperative means? The teacher will continue to give oral sentences with the term in context until a satisfactory definition is created. The entire “class” will create a definition for each word using this strategy. Then each person creates a sentence for each word incorporating the definition in each sentence. Put a box around the word & underline the definition. Example: To be a cooperative group, you must work together to meet a common goal. Share sentences in your group. Complete your toolkit handout. Meaningful Sentences Word List Flexible Assessment Process Product Content Knowledge Meaningful Sentence Thoughts Teacher can give parts of speech. In this activity the teacher reads sentences. Definitions will vary as you record student responses, not teacher jargon. If more clarification is needed the teacher keeps giving sentences with vocab in context. Students only need to know five per week. Review daily all of the words, but star the ones that will be tested. For Success in Meaningful Sentences Learning occurs when vocabulary is reinforced. Definitions are student generated so they “own” them. Encourage students to connect definitions to prior experiences. Strategies for Differentiation Menus Contracts Learning Menus and Contracts Menus empower students through CHOICE while ensuring adherence to important LEARNING GOALS. Learning menus outline a variety of instructional options targeted toward important learning goals. Students are able to select the choices which most appeal to them. The teacher directs the menu process, but the student is given control over his/her choice of options, order of completion, etc. Differentiation Strategy A learning menu offers a main course which all students are required to complete completely. The learning menu offers side dishes which students have to complete a certain number of options. Desserts are optional or enrichment opportunities for students. The learning menu can be a short duration or a long duration. Types of Learning Menus CONTRACT: A “package” of tasks & activities, as well as meeting times with teacher and other organizational measures, to ensure student success and grasp of learning goals. MENU: Main Dishes, Side Dishes, and Desserts (for younger learners). AGENDA: Imperatives, Negotiables, and Options (for older learners). THINK TAC TOE: Complete a row, column or diagonal line of activities. Example IMPERATIVES (You must do ALL of these…) Select a chemical problem in the environment and define and describe the difficulties it presents Be sure to discuss why, where, and to whom/what Your choices are: Global warming/Greenhouse effect/Ozone depletion/Acid Rain/ Pollution/Water Pollution (including thermal pollution and land/ground pollution) Develop a multimedia presentation that includes an annotated map showing where the problem exists, what/who is affected by it, and the degree of impact on the present and future Example NEGOTIABLES (You must do at least one of these…) Determine the approximate costs of the problem of one badly affected region and develop a graphic that shows total costs and what makes the costs (for example: Health costs, clean-up costs, lost revenues from land, etc.) Develop a timeline of the evolution of the problem over the last 100 years, including significant dates, and factors that contributed to the change. Take the timeline into the future based on your current understanding of trends associated with the problem. Example OPTIONS (You may do one or more of these…) Create a Gary Larson-type cartoon or an editorial cartoon that makes a commentary on the problem. Prepare a fictionalized account, but based on scientific fact, of a person who lives in a badly affected area. Your goal is to put a human face on the problem. Develop a 60-second YouTube public service announcement to raise audience awareness of the problem and introduce positive actions citizens might take to improve the prognosis for the future. Rationale & Application Think-Pair-Share about how learning contracts and menus could be used in your classroom. Record ideas in your toolkit. Report out to larger group. ThinkDots In small groups you will take turns rolling a die to determine which of the 6 questions you’ll answer for your group. Groups take notes for each question and reports out to entire group. Debrief afterwards! How Might you Use ThinkDots? • To build community • For review • For large tasks • To get students used to working in groups in an interdependent fashion • Accountability pieces are VITAL Rationale & Application Think-Pair-Share about how ThinkDots could be used in your classroom. Record ideas in your toolkit. Report out to larger group. Activity Question Answer Relationship Questioning Strategy Read the following poem and the questions that follow Discuss your thoughts with your partners Following the sharing of responses write your ideas, feelings, and reactions. This Is Just To Say by William Carlos Williams I have eaten the plums that were in the icebox and which you were probably saving for breakfast Forgive me they were delicious so sweet and so cold Questions 1. Why is the speaker seeking forgiveness? 2. In your mental movie whom do you imagine the speaker is? And to whom is he writing the poem? 3. Do you think the speaker is actually sorry? What words make you believe or disbelieve the apology? 4. Why do you think the author goes into so much detail about how delicious, cold, and sweet the plums are? This Is Just To Say by William Carlos Williams I have eaten the plums that were in the icebox and which you were probably saving for breakfast Forgive me they were delicious so sweet and so cold 1. 2. 3. 4. Why is the speaker seeking forgiveness? In your mental movie whom do you imagine the speaker is? And to whom is he writing the poem? Do you think the speaker is actually sorry? What words make you believe or disbelieve the apology? Why do you think the author goes into so much detail about how delicious, cold, and sweet the plums are? QAR Question Answer Relationship Right There: The answer is located in one place in the text Think and Search: The answer is located in several places within the text Author and You: The answer is not located in the text, but the reader must use the author's information in combination with personal knowledge to answer the question On My Own: The answer is not located in the text, but the reader must use personal experiences to answer the question. Rationale & Application Think-pair-share How could you use QAR in your classroom? Complete your toolkit. Share with the whole group DI Rationale Rationale met the different learning styles had the emotional connection involved movement had repetition allowed for collaboration can be adapted to any learner Double Entry Journal Note-taking Strategy AS YOU READ…write AFTER YOU READ…write • Key phrases • Important words (Provided) • Main ideas (Provided) • Puzzling passages • Summaries • Powerful passages • Key parts • Important graphics • Etc. • Meaning of key words, passages • Why an idea is important • How to use an idea • Questions • Predictions • Reactions • Comments on style • Interpretation of graphics • Etc. Give One - Get One This strategy provides a great review and enables students to gather information from each other. Tell students to gather all of their notes and make a list of facts or ideas learned. Have students begin with a partner assigned by you. Instruct them to collect one new and different fact or idea from their partner. Then they are to give one new and different fact or idea. If neither has a new and different idea, tell them to brainstorm the topic and try to create one (preferably a correct one). Go from person to person until you generate about 15 ideas on the subject. Compile a group list of ideas generated. Activity Give one Get one Higher-Order Questioning Write down your ideas on how to create an effective lesson. Circulate around the room. Share your idea with someone and collect an idea from him or her. Go to a different person and repeat the process. Give an idea and get an idea. You may not collect more than one idea from any one person. If you find a person who has the same idea that you have, come up with at least one new idea together. You have 90 seconds to collect 6 new ideas. Have fun. Be creative. Be respectful of others’ ideas. Rationale and Application Rationale This is often used to introduce new concepts transitioning into new material. Application This is used as a “hook” to get learners thinking about the content and linking to prior knowledge. Complete your toolkit and discuss. Think-Tac-Toe Adapted from Fulfilling the Promise of the Differentiated Classroom, Carol Ann Tomlinson, ASCD 2003 Think-Tac-Toe plays off the familiar childhood game. It is a simple way to give students alternative ways of exploring and expressing key ideas and using key skills. Typically, the Think-Tac-Toe grid has nine cells in it like a Tic-Tac-Toe game. The number of rows and cells can, of course, be adjusted. Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Comprehension or Evaluation Application or Evaluation Knowledge or Analysis A Planet “Show & Tell” Pick a Way to Explain Create One (Each student must pick one square from each horizontal row and use the two together) Use the computer to make a drawing that shows how the rotation and revolution of the Earth works to create day and night and seasons. Paint a picture that shows how the rotation and revolution of the Earth works to create day and night and seasons. Construct a model that shows how the rotation and revolution of the Earth works to create day and night and seasons. Create a book or puppet show that shows how the rotation and revolution of the Earth works. Make labels for the sun, Earth, day, night, orbit to attach to or use with your creation. Be ready to explain orally. Write sentences* that identity and explain each part of your drawing or model and how each part works. Write a story that explains the Earth’s rotation, revolution, day and night, and seasons. Write a poem that explains the Earth’s rotation, revolution, day and night and seasons. This differentiated review/synthesis task is based on Va. SOLS for science: 1.6 The student will investigate & understand the basic relationships between the Earth and sun, Including *the sun is the source of heat & light *night & day are caused by the rotation of the Earth. 1.7 The student will investigate and understand the relationship of seasonal change (light and temperature) to the activities & life processes of plants and animals. Based on Unit by Bette Wood, Charlottesville, Virginia City Schools. G.R.A.S.P.S. Goal: state the task – can be a goal or a challenge Role: what role do you want the students to assume? Audience: the target audience for the scenario Situation: the context of the scenario Product: what will the students create and why Standard: specific standards for success (rubric); use your KUDs to frame the expected standards If we could rename these…. LINGO WHAT IT MEANS KNOW FACTS VOCAB UNDERSTAND BIG IDEAS DO SKILLS Example GRASPS Goal: Your goal is to tell the basketball coach who the starting 5 players should be for the championship game. Role: You are the basketball team manager/ statistician Audience: The basketball coach Situation: You have been keeping team stats all season. You have a list of the players, the number of points they have scored, the numbers of foul shots attempted, and the number of foul shots made. Product: You need to determine which five team members have the best foul shooting percentage. Present your info to the coach in chart form with your recommendation for the starting 5. Standards: Demonstrate proficiency in: 1. Comparison of Fractions, Decimals, and Percentages 2. Converting between number representations RAFT Writing Strategy RAFT is a writing strategy that can be used in all content areas and offers students a choice in their writing assignment. R stands for Role - the person or thing that students will become. A is for Audience - the person who will be reading the product. F is for Format - the way in which the writing will be done. Examples-letter, brochure, memo, speech, or advertisement. T stands for Topic - what the writing will discuss. Students can demonstrate their mastery of content knowledge by using a RAFT. A RAFT allows for differentiated instruction because students get a choice in their assignment based on their interest. RAFT • Role – of the writer = lawyer, reporter, scientist, etc. • Audience – the reader = parent, teacher, the public, the sun, etc. • Format – how the writing will be presented = a letter, an article, a report, a poem • Topic – the subject of the writing = get creative! RAFT Examples ROLE AUDIENCE FORMAT TOPIC Huck Finn Jim Letter What I learned on the trip Lungs Brain Persuasive Speech Why I quit smoking Guard at an internment camp Writing in Personal Diary Diary entry of at Describe daily least 8 life in an sentences internment camp Draw a Mile a Minute • Identify a partner sitting near you. • The person with the most teaching experience is partner A. • Partner A faces screen; Partner B faces Partner A, with their back towards the screen. • Partner A will sketch words on the list; no verbal clues will be given. • Partner B tries to guess the words based on the images drawn. Talk a Mile a Minute • Identify a partner sitting near you. • The person wearing the most buttons is partner A. • Partner A faces screen; Partner B faces Partner A, with their back towards the screen. • Partner A will give verbal clues to describe each of the words on the list; no writing is allowed. • Partner B tries to guess words based on their partner’s descriptions. Cubing Higher Order Thinking Strategy • Six-sided cubes have different question/activity on each side • Spend only 5 or 10 minutes on each side of the cube. • Often uses levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy • Can be differentiated by readiness/interest/learning profile; Each group could have different levels of questions pertaining to the same topic Cubing Examples of What can be Included Describe it: What does it look like? Compare it: What is it similar to or different from? Associate it: What does it make you think of? Analyze it: How is it made or what is it composed of? Apply it: What can you do with it? How is it used? Argue for or against it: Take a stand and list reasons for supporting it. Show how to find the middle value of this set of data. 4, 2, 8, 9, 4, 10, 5 What is this correct term for this value? Describe mean, median and mode. Explain how to find the mean, median and mode of the numbers 4, 3, 5. MEAN, MEDIAN AND MODE (Below Level) Would the mode change if the number 76 was added to the following data set? 64, 76, 46, 88, 88, 43, 99, 50, 55 Give an example that demonstrates why it is important to know how to find the mean, median or mode of a set of data. Create a set of data showing how many hours a week five students read. Show how to find the mean. Adapted from: Claudia Schrader, Mannington Middle School Construct a data set of five numbers that has a mean of 2, a median of 1 and a mode of 1. MEAN, MEDIAN AND MODE (On Level) Explain how to find Will a set of data Describe one Describe the mean, the mean, median always have a mode? situation where you median and mode and mode of this data Explain your could use the of a data set. set. answer. median. 5, 7, 13, 9, 9, 11 Create a list of data to collect from students. Predict the mean, median and mode for each Item on the list. Adapted from: Claudia Schrader, Mannington Middle School What is the greatest number in a set of data that consists of only three numbers that have a mean of 12 and a median of 12 and whose least number is 5? Explain how to find the mean, median and mode for this data set: 99, 98, 90, 79, 60, 40, 90, 80 MEAN, MEDIAN AND MODE (Above Level) Discuss how the mode, median, and Give examples of why Can a set of values mean change when it is important to be have more than one the numbers 14 and able to find the mean, 32 are added to this mode? No mode? median, mode and data: Explain. range of a data set. 14, 20, 58, 14, 22, 7, 18, 46, 28, 3 Design a data set that has five numbers with a range of 10, a mode of 6 and a median of 12. What is the mean? Adapted from: Claudia Schrader, Mannington Middle School K-U-D Know Understand Do All lesson planning should include answers to this question… What do you want students to Know Understand and Be Able to Do as a result of your lesson, activity, and/or unit? K-U-D Example using DI for the topic KNOW - key components of a DI classroom implementation strategies UNDERSTAND THAT: In a DI classroom, students and teachers collaborate to build and maintain a learning community, which fosters success. Flexible use of time, materials and grouping are hallmarks of a DI classroom that allows each learner to maximize growth. Differentiation becomes a “way of being” in the classroom in order to best meet the needs of all students. BE ABLE TO DO: Use and/or adapt the strategies presented. Involve students in creating a DI classroom. Set goals to implement DI at your own pace. Summarizing in DI Summarizing is a formative assessment tool used to adjust instruction. Formative – ongoing check up Summative –autopsy Summarizing is ongoing. It should be used regularly at lesson launch, during instruction, and at the end of class. Teach-Summarize-Adjust-Teach-SummarizeREPEAT! ENTRANCE PASS Here’s what I already know about today’s topic: ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Here’s what I want to learn about today’s topic: ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Here’s what I want you to know about how I learn: ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ “Ticket to Leave” • The muddiest point for me today was . . . • Today’s session moved . . . 1) At the right pace 2) Too slow 3) Too Fast • Identify something I can do to help you learn better: – three things you learned today – two things you want to try – one question you still have ASSESSMENT Keys to Assessment Success The teacher uses pre-assessments to discover students' learning profiles, interests, and readiness levels. The teacher uses a variety of assessments. The teacher uses assessment results to make instructional decisions. Students are aware of how they will be assessed. Students receive timely and specific feedback in relation to the learning goals. The teacher encourages students when providing feedback. Students set personal learning goals when appropriate. Students are involved in self-assessment when appropriate. Student progress toward learning goals is recognized and celebrated. Activity 3-2-1 Summarizer List three different types of DI activities we did today. List two things you can use from today in your classroom next week. List one thing you could help another teacher with to use DI in their classroom.