Part 2: Cultural Competence Webinar

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Part 2: Cultural Competence Webinar
Diversity, Inclusivity & Civility:
Developing & Enhancing Students'
Cultural Competence
Part 2
Tom Brown
[email protected]
Reality is perception from our point
of view.
Our perceptions are reinforced by
what we’ve been taught….
Perceptual set
• Imagine you are witnessing a prehistoric scene
in a cave, where a group is gathered around a
glowing fire.
• One of the group picks up a piece of charcoal
and goes over to the wall and begins drawing.
• Suddenly, shapes of animals and humans are
drawn, and a new form of human
communication begins.
• Can you see it?
• For how many of you was the artist a woman?
Our perceptions are reinforced by
what we’ve been taught….
The U.S. college campus is one of
the few places on earth where people
from so many diverse backgrounds
come together for a common
Session 1
• Why does diversity matter?
• Does diversity support student learning
and development? Why and how?
• What is cultural competence?
• Can cultural competence be
• Addressing Some Diversity Issues
• Barriers to Engagement
Diversity matters
For institutions
To keep pace in today's complex and competitive
global arena, American higher education must
retire old notions of educational exclusivity and
embrace new models of inclusive excellence.
For students
By incorporating diverse content, perspectives,
and approaches into the curriculum, faculty
strengthen scholarship and prepare students for
engagement with today's complex world.
Why does diversity matter?
It matters for students
By incorporating diverse content, perspectives,
and approaches into the curriculum, faculty of all
disciplines have found both pedagogical and
curricular routes that strengthen scholarship and
prepare students for engagement with today's
complex world.
“Teaching Diversity and Democracy Across the Disciplines: Who, What &
How, Diversity & Democracy, Fall 2009
Diverse learning experiences benefit students
• Diversity has positive effects on students’
cognitive development, satisfaction with the
college experience, and leadership abilities.
• Students who interact with racially and
ethnically diverse peers show greater
intellectual growth and academic skills.
• Both in-class and out-of-class interactions
and involvement with diverse peers foster
critical thinking
Benefits and Challenges of Diversity, Eve Fine, 2004
Diversity and Education
• Diversity capitalizes on the unique experiences
and common wisdom of all cultures by
providing a fertile ground for contrast and
• Provides a view of other peoples so distinct
from, yet similar to, ourselves that our own
lives and experiences are given new
perspective and meaning.
• Diversity is an enriching and necessary
component of the total educational experience.
Southern Oregon University
Cross cultural competence
• Developing an awareness of one's own culture,
existence, sensations, thoughts, and
• Accepting and respecting cultural differences;
• Resisting judgmental attitudes such as
"different is not as good;" and
• Being open to cultural encounters;
• Being comfortable with cultural encounters.
“The Purnell Model for Cultural Competence”
Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Health
Summer 2005
Theoretical Model of Cross Cultural Competence*
Tolerance of
Willingness to
Leads to the
Specific Competencies
Interpersonal Skills
Relationship Building
Resulting in
*Ross, Thornson, McDonald, & Arrastia
The Development of the Cross–Cultural Competence Inventory, 2009
and Success
Developing competence is a process
• Cultural competence is not acquired quickly
or casually, rather it requires an intentional
examination of one’s thoughts and
• The first step toward becoming culturally
competent is realizing that you probably
“Cultural Competence in the Biology Classroom”
Kimberly Tanner & Deborah Allen, 2007
Cross Cultural Competence includes:
Having the capacity to:
• value diversity
• conduct self-assessment
• manage the dynamics of difference
• acquire and institutionalize cultural
• adapt to the diversity and cultural
contexts of individuals and communities
Making “Diversity” More Inclusive
“Culture” is often viewed in the U.S. as
being primarily related to race, ethnicity,
and gender
However, effective diversity/inclusivity
programs must also address other kinds
of diversity which lead to
marginalization and exclusion.
Seven kinds of diversity
Beverly D. Tatum, 1999
Sexual Orientation
Socio-economic status
Physical/Mental Ability
Religious oppression
Attention to diversity might even be
perceived as divisive and inhibiting
A strategy to counter the divisive
perceptions of diversity is to broaden
our definition of diversity, in ways that
highlight the intersectionality of
race/ethnic, gender, class, religion,
sexual orientation, within a framework
of marginalization and justice.
Marilyn Fernandez, Santa Clara University
Multiple issues
Black and ALSO
• A woman (gender)
• Atheist (religion)
• Questioning (Sexual orientation)
• Low Socio-economic background
• 45 years old and returning to college (age)
• Dyslexic (ability)
Developing Cross Cultural Competence
Addressing Some Diversity Issues
Socio-economic status
Sexual orientation
Race & Ethnicity
Diversity in Diversity
People from the same ethnic or racial
group are also “diverse” in terms of
socio-economic status, education, age,
sexual orientation, individual
experiences, or disposition.
White students often struggle with strong
feelings of guilt when they become aware of
the pervasive racism. Even when they feel
their own behavior has been
These feelings are uncomfortable and can
lead white students to resist learning
about race and racism. And who can
blame them? If learning about racism
means seeing oneself as one of the bad
Beverly Tatum, 1994
Don’t ask students to get out of
their comfort zone….
Challenge and support them to
stretch their comfort zone.
It’s not personal
As a white, male, nondisabled, middle class
heterosexual, I do know that in some ways
these words are about me…
But in equally important ways the words are
not about me because they name something
larger than me, something I didn’t create or
invent but that was passed on to me as a
legacy of being born into this society.
Johnson 2006
White Identity Development: A stage model
• Contact stage: denial of racism and/or obliviousness to
White privilege
• Disintegration stage: disorientation, guilt, and anxiety as
the realities of racism break through
• Reintegration stage: re-embrace the ideology of the
normative White group
• Pseudo-independent stage: Acknowledgement of others’
racism without self-analysis with regard to their own
socialized racism.
• Immersion/Emersion: Search for accurate information
about race and a deeper understanding of their own
racist socializations.
• Autonomy: cognitively complex and flexible, avoid life
options participation in racial oppression, capacity to
relinquish White privilege.
Janet Helms, 1992
Identity Development
The autonomous person is
humanistic and involved in
activism regarding many forms of
oppression (e.g., fighting sexism,
ageism, homophobia).
• Most of us will find that we are both dominant
and targeted at the same time [but] the targeted
identities hold our attention and the dominant
identities go unexamined
• We assume the targeted identity to be the
primary cause of all oppression, forgetting
other distortions around difference, some of
which we are ourselves practicing.
“Age, Race, Class & Sex: Women Defining Difference
Audre Lord, 1995
Dominant and Targeted
+ White
+ Male (gender)
+ Christian (religion)
+ Professional (Socio-economic Status
+ 35 years old (age)
+ No disabilities
Diversity and inclusivity
are about understanding…
not necessarily agreeing.
Understanding cultural difference doesn’t
make the difference go away.
However, the person who understands
how difference causes communication to
break down can take the initiative to try
and make the communication work.
You Just Don’t Understand
Dr. Deborah Tannen, 2000
Session 2
• Developing cultural competence: Understanding
• Exploring culture, cultural assumptions, and the
development of bias
• Creating inclusive campuses and culturally
competent teaching
• Cognitive & emotional barriers to success:
Stereotype Threat
• DiversityInclusivityCivility
• Assessing cultural competence
Defining & Understanding Terms
The status of belonging to a particular
nation by origin, birth, or naturalization.
Ethnic Group
A sizable group of people sharing a
common and distinctive racial,
national, religious, linguistic, or cultural
Defining & Understanding Terms
A human population distinguished
as a more or less distinct group by
genetically transmitted physical
Racial characteristics are only
minor variations among people
Racial characteristics (e.g., skin
color, eye shape, hair texture)
account for 0.012 percent of human
biological variation.
Susan Cameron & Susan Macias Wycoff
Journal of Counseling & Development, 1998
No scientific basis for race?
• Race was invented in the 18th Century
• Race and racism have always been
• “Racial” traits are culturally determined
The Social Construction of Race
David Schweingruber, April 2005
No scientific basis for race?
The belief that a classification based on
skin color and other skin-deep properties
like body shape or hair style maps onto
meaningful, important biological kinds—
is a pseudo-biological concept that has
been used to justify and rationalize the
unequal treatment of groups of people by
Social Construction and the Concept of Race
Edouard Machery and Luc Faucher, 2004
Science suggests the differences
that set us apart are not racial,
they are more likely to be cultural.
The only reason people think
differences are major is because
we’ve been brought up in a culture
that has taught us to see differences
this way.
Diversity is not the problem
The “problem” emerges because we
live in a world that encourages people
to use differences to include or
exclude, reward or punish, credit or
discredit, elevate, or oppress, value or
devalue, leave alone or harass….
Johnson, 2006
Culture is learned.
You are not born with culture.
Cultures differ from one another in the
ways they view the world—worldviews.
Culture is learned.
You are not born with culture.
Cultural Encounter Exercise
Cultural Encounter Exercise
Culture A
• Your culture requires you to speak loudly
and to stand very close to people when you
are talking.
• It is polite to shake hands with every new
person you meet.
• It is a sign of respect to look people in the
• It is very important to touch people every
now and then while talking to them—usually
by placing a hand on their shoulders, or
touching their arms.
Cultural Encounter Exercise
Culture B
• Your culture requires you to speak softly and
be at least three feet away from people when
you are talking.
• It is improper for men and women to shake
hands with people of the opposite sex.
• It is rude to look people in the eyes while
• It is improper for strangers to touch each
other, and you must try to avoid bodily
contact at all costs.
Cultural Encounter Exercise
• Divide students into Culture A and Culture B
• Give them a few minutes to read and
practice their group’s culture
• Ask the two cultures to interact for several
minutes and observe what happens
• Stop the exercise and ask the groups to
describe their thoughts, feelings and beliefs
about the other group
• Note the judgments, assumptions,
descriptions that emerge
Attitudes about time
Beliefs about men &
women-gender roles
Political beliefs
about Family
Attitudes toward “others”
Religious beliefs
Sexuality Beliefs
Attitudes toward
Beliefs about Beauty
The Iceberg of Culture
Is learned or taught
The Iceberg of Culture
Culture is learned first in the family,
then in school, then in the community
and other social organizations such
as the church.
Purnell, 2005
It is hard to recognize your own
culture and cultural assumptions
because they are so pervasive and
Implicit Cultural Assumptions
North American
“Contrast” Cultures
Can control the environment
Future oriented
Direct in communications
Youth valuing
Action oriented: Change now
Ethnocentric: our way is the
best way
Belief in fate
Present focus
Indirect (non-verbal cues)
Age valuing
More closed to “strangers”
Change takes time
Ethnocentric: our way is
the only way
These are learned
and can be changed
Attitudes about time
Beliefs about men &
women-gender roles
Political beliefs
about Family
Attitudes toward “others”
Religious beliefs
Beliefs about Beauty
Sexuality Beliefs
What’s below the
surface is absorbed
or acquired from
our environment
and is much harder
to change
Attitudes toward
The Iceberg of Culture
Our attitudes toward race, gender, &
other diversity operate at two levels:
Conscious: what we choose to
Unconscious: immediate, automatic
associations that tumble out before
we’ve had time to think.
Blink, Malcolm Gladwell
The Dolls….
Our attitudes toward race, gender, &
other diversity operate at two levels:
Conscious: what we choose to
Unconscious: immediate, automatic
associations that tumble out before
we’ve had time to think.
Blink, Malcolm Gladwell
Implicit Association Tests
Implicit Association Tests
Skin Tone
Arab Muslim
And more…
Creating culturally inclusive
classroom environments
A Culturally Inclusive Classroom
 Students and staff alike recognize,
appreciate and capitalize on diversity so
as to enrich the overall learning
 Encourages all individuals – regardless
of age, gender, ethnicity, religious
affiliation, socioeconomic status, sexual
orientation or political beliefs – to
develop personal contacts and effective
intercultural skills.
Designing Culturally Inclusive Learning and Teaching Environments
GIHE Good Practice Resource Book, Griffith University, Australia
A Culturally Inclusive Classroom
Designing Culturally Inclusive Learning and Teaching Environments
GIHE Good Practice Resource Book, Griffith University, Australia
Why are all the white kids sitting
together in the cafeteria?
Unless colleges and universities create
structures to monitor educational
achievement among all students—
African American, Latino/a, Native
American, Asian American, white—the
ideal of inclusive excellence will be
Achieving Educational Outcomes for All students
Bauman, Bustillos, Bensimon, Bensimon, Brown, &
Bartee, 2005
Challenge and support students
People who expand or stretch their
comfort zones to include more people
and experiences, often report more
complete, rewarding, and successful
lives—during college and beyond.
“From Diversity to Inclusivity, “ T. Brown, 2011
Engaging majority students
Provide majority students with avenues
to enhance their cross-cultural
competencies and encourage their
active participation and engagement
with diverse populations.
Salve Regina University
Recommendation for students to
enhance cultural competence
Take classes about cultures and groups
other than your own to expand your
knowledge and increase your cultural
Recommendation for students to
enhance cultural competence
For Multicultural students
Invite friends outside your identity
group(s) to come with you to events
and activities. This will not only allow
them to make personal and social
connections, it may also enable them
consider their own feelings of “being in
the minority.”
Recommendation for students to
enhance cultural competence
For U.S. students
• Reach out to international students. too few
international students have opportunities to
meet and know US students and people.
• Explore opportunities to become a language
partner for students seeking to improve their
language skills.
• join the international club and attend events,
and invite international students to
participate in social and cultural events with
which you are involved.
Recommendation for students to
enhance cultural competence
For all students
• Challenge racist, sexist, and homo-negative
comments and jokes that demean others.
Racism and other forms of discrimination
may persevere in part because people who
anticipate feeling upset and who believe that
they will take action when faced with an act
of intolerance may actually respond with
It takes the faculty
• Most faculty members report believing
campus diversity positively affects
students and faculty.
• Most have not made many changes in
their classroom practices as a result of
student and faculty diversity.
Does Diversity Make a Difference?
Maruyama and Moreno, 2000
It takes the faculty
Only one-third of responding
faculty report raising issues
related to diversity and creating
diverse work groups, although
they reported feeling well-prepared
to teach diverse classes
Maruyama and Moreno, 2000
Culturally competent teaching
The ability to successfully teach students
who come from different “cultures”
• mastering personal and interpersonal
awareness and sensitivities,
• learning, specific bodies of cultural
• mastering a set of skills that underlie
effective cross-cultural teaching
Cultural Competence: A Primer for Educators
Jerry Diller and Jean Moule, 2005
Many non-traditional students want
their doubts erased about their
being capable of learning….
This is especially true for first
generation students, Hispanic and
African American students….
Laura Rendon 1994, 2001
Stereotype Threat
Multicultural students have reported being
affected directly by racist assumptions in
class and subsequently felt that faculty
were less willing to interact with them,
even concerning academic related issues.
Allen,1991; Kraft, 1991
African American men report being
stereotyped based on the styles they wear,
such as baggy jeans, braided hairstyles, or
gold jewelry.
MDRC, 2010
Identity and Stereotype Threat
•Our social identities come from a variety of
•Our race, sex, age, political affiliations,
medical diagnoses, high schools, colleges,
even our favorite teams.
•Each of those identities comes along with
a set of expectations, labels, or
•Asian students in math and science?
•U.S. white male vs. black male athletes
in a 100 meter race.
•Second language speakers and writing
•Women in science and math?
•Whites vs. Asians in STEM?
And then there's a curious fact:
Take away the threat to identity, and they do fine
Identity and Stereotype Threat
Women, Black, Latino students’
academic performance declines
in situations identified as testing their
intellectual ability.
Whistling Vivaldi, Claude Steele, 2011
The pressure of a stereotype can distract
students’ focus in learning situations
In addition to learning
new skills, knowledge,
and ways of thinking,
students are also
GHOST IN THE ROOM-- negative stereotypes
about them and their
Adapted from Steele, 2010
Stereotype threat affects the ability
to function effectively…
Affects the ability to use our mind in an
effective manner by:
•Increasing performance-worsening
•Impairing working memory;
•Activating “worry circuits” in the brain
versus “reasoning circuits.”
These reactions interfere with performance
Stereotype Threat
When students are reminded, however
subtly, of negative stereotypes about their
group (e.g., women or students of color in
math), they perform more poorly.
Steele & Aronson, 1995; Rydell, McConnell & Beilock, 2009
Stereotype threat
“Internalized oppression”
A member of the stereotyped
group comes to believe in the truth
of the stereotype to some degree.
Tatum, 1994
Low Ability Attributions
Self attributions of low ability, as well as low
ability attributions of faculty, staff can
adversely affect the extent to which students
become fully engaged in learning, as well as
the extent to which faculty and staff become
fully engaged in supporting students to
succeed at a task.
Brown & Rivas, 2011
“I can’t do Calculus….”
Shift attributions from ability to
Students’ attributions and those of
faculty and staff.
What background is required
for success in Calculus?
•Basic Math
Even though students may be highly
prepared, the anxiety they experience
from worrying whether their peers and
teachers believe stereotypes to be true is
distressful enough to lower performance.
Roach, 2001
Reducing stereotype threat
Steele, 2010
The negative effects of Stereotype Threat
can be lessened when:
Educators challenge themselves to
understand the impact of Stereotype
Threat, and model non-stereotypical
behavior toward students.
Examining & Challenging Stereotypes
Once we have formed unconscious
judgments, or “stereotypes,” they usually
won’t change unless we take the time to
examine and consciously consider their
This is what it truly means to be a student
and a scholar.
“From Diversity to Inclusivity”
Tom Brown, 2011
Diversity to inclusivity
An inclusive organization where
all people are empowered to do
their best work.
Simma Lieberman
Civility matters because treating one
another with respect is necessary to
effective communication, community
building, and finding common
The Dance of Incivility in Nursing
Dr. Cindy Clark, Boise State University
Creating a culture of civility
requires communication,
interaction, and an appreciation for
the interests each person brings to
the relationship.
Cynthia Clark, 2008
Diversity + Inclusivity + Civility =
We Value:
• Excellence in teaching and learning that we
enhance through diversity, inclusiveness,
integrity and collegiality.
• A positive culture that fosters mutual respect
and trust [and] promotes this atmosphere
through open communication.
• An environment that recognizes and respects
cultural diversity by recognizing and being
responsive to individual needs.
Elizabethtown Community & Technical College
What produces a safe classroom?
A safe classroom climate
A safe classroom is one where discussion
and disagreement are acceptable; where
established rules of discourse are followed
by everyone, especially the instructor.
2. Students may need to be reminded of
ground rules from time to time
3. Once students have reached consensus on
a particular point, acknowledge this and
agree to move on, so they don't recycle
arguments over old ground.
University of North Carolina Center for Faculty Excellence
A safe classroom climate
It may be necessary to call “time outs” to
allow emotions to cool. Ask students to
summarize the discussion and write down
their own thoughts, so these can be shared
to restart the discussion.
5. Reserve time to wrap up the discussion,
wherein students report what they learned
and examine conclusions drawn from the
University of North Carolina Center for Faculty Excellence
Our Argument Culture
• Too many students (and perhaps too many
faculty) understand the goal of debate in the
classroom (and in a democracy) to be to
convince other students (and fellow citizens) of
their views.
• Critical thinking should be a tool not merely for
exposing flaws in others' arguments, but for
reflecting on one's own assumptions and--most
importantly--strengthening one's own
“Teaching Diversity and Democracy Across the Disciplines: Who, What, & How”
Dr. Jack Meacham, 2009
Without civility, we miss
opportunities to really listen
and understand others’ points
of view.
Clark, 2008
Communication for community:
To Listen More
A key element in learning from those
who are different from you is to listen
to their feelings, especially their
feelings of being “the other” in some
area of their lives.
Communication for community:
To Listen More
As soon as we think we are right about
something, we narrow our focus,
attending only to the details that support
our belief, or we cease listening
The Human Element
Will Schultz, 2010
Your opinion is only
your point of view.
It is not necessarily true.
The Four Agreements
Don Miguel Ruiz
There’s a chance you’re both right.
Perception is reality
Do you see an old woman or young woman?
In an undergraduate context, it is
widely accepted that the foundation
of a civil or uncivil classroom is
established within the first four days
of class
Amy Hirschy & John Braxton, 2004
Civility in the College Classroom
Jennifer Schroeder & Harvetta Robinson, 2008
• Be proactive: Include expectations for
behavior, along with academic expectations in
• Be a model: Behavior serves as a powerful
representation in how faculty treat students
Ask why: seek to have students explain their
behavior and put it into context
Have a plan: to respond to the unexpected
Follow through on your plans for action
Document incidents and your response(s)
Civility Contract-Indiana University
The classroom setting must be characterized
by appropriate, respectful behavior.
No instructor or other students in a class
should be subject to any student’s disruptive
or rude behavior.
The instructor will take appropriate action to
maintain a positive learning environment.
Sanctions may include: removal from class,
failure of an assignment or the course, and/or
referral to the campus judicial system.
Likewise, no student should feel disregarded
or intimidated by his/her instructor.
Civility Contract-Indiana University
The classroom setting must be characterized by
appropriate, respectful behavior. No instructor or other
students in a class should be subject to any student’s
disruptive or rude behavior. The instructor will take
appropriate action to maintain a positive learning
environment. Sanctions may include
removal from class, failure of an assignment or the
course, and/or referral to the campus judicial system.
Likewise, no student should feel disregarded or
intimidated by his/her instructor.
As a member of the academic community, I understand my
responsibility for ensuring a productive and conducive learning
environment. I will respect the guidelines listed above and I
understand the consequences of disregarding them
Printed Name
As a member of a campus community, you
have the responsibility to contribute
to creating an environment wherein all people
feel safe to be themselves.
Whenever you are about to make a comment
or take an action, imagine what would happen
if you asked yourself a simple question: Is
what I am about to say or do going to bring me
closer to this person or is it going to drive us
further apart?
Assessing cultural competence
Gaining the intellectual tools for diversity
competence should become a strategic
learning outcome that is woven through
the core curriculum.
Diversity & Cultural Competence
A Model for Inclusive Excellence
Marilyn Fernandez, Santa Clara University
Diversity/Inclusivity Outcomes
Developing and enhancing cultural
competence must be the primary
outcome of diversity/inclusivity
Cultural competence is the ability
to understand, communicate and
effectively interact with people
across cultures.
Assessing Cross Cultural Competence
The Cross Cultural
Competence Inventory
Karol G. Ross, Carol A. Thornson, Daniel P. McDonald Meagan C. Arrastia
Assessing Students' Diversity, Global,
and Civic Learning Gains
Diversity & Democracy
AAC&U Summer 2013
Cultural competence skill areas.
• Valuing Diversity. Accepting and respecting
differences—different cultural backgrounds and
customs, different ways of communicating, and
different traditions and values.
• Being Culturally Self-Aware. Having sense of
who they are and where they fit in their family,
campus, community, and society.
• Dynamics of Difference. Knowing what can go
wrong in cross-cultural communication and how
to respond to these situations.
Cultural Competence: A Primer for Educators
Jerry Diller and Jean Moule, 2005
Essential Liberal Learning Outcomes
1. Intellectual and Practical Skills
2. Personal and Social Responsibility
3. Integrative and Applied Learning
American Association of Colleges & Universities
Essential Liberal Learning Outcomes
Selected examples
1. Intellectual and Practical Skills: inquiry
and analysis; critical thinking; teamwork;
problem solving
What evidence would be considered?
How would this be measured?
Essential Liberal Learning Outcomes
Selected examples
2. Personal and Social Responsibility: civic
knowledge and engagement - local and
global; intercultural knowledge and
competence; ethical reasoning.
What evidence would be considered?
How would this be measured?
Essential Liberal Learning Outcomes
Selected examples
3. Integrative and Applied Learning:
integrative and applied learning
What evidence would be considered?
How would this be measured?
Assessment in Diversity
at Texas A & M University
Students will “demonstrate social, cultural,
and global competence, including the
ability to:
• live and work effectively in a diverse and
global society;
• articulate the value of a diverse and
global perspective;
• recognize diverse economic, political,
cultural and religious opinions and
Texas A&M University, 2002
Texas A&M launched the Intercultural
Competence Project (ICP) in summer 2012.
• Extended e-mail invitations to faculty asking for
student work dealing with international, global, or
diversity issues, omitting personal information;
• Coded the papers for analysis, including student
demographic information (gender, race, class
• Using a modified version of the rubric that excluded
the verbal and nonverbal communication skills
criterion, faculty from four different colleges scored
the submitted papers.
Texas A&M Intercultural Competence Project
• OIA staff compared mean scores based on
gender, ethnicity, and class
• OIA created department-level reports for each
participating unit, comparing each
department’s scores to the overall average.
• reports sparked conversation about
opportunities to enhance pedagogy and the
Self Assessment
Self-assessment as an ongoing process,
not a one-time occurrence, that offers the
opportunity to assess individual and
collective progress over time.
National Center for Cultural Competence
Georgetown University
Established Assessment Issues
• Is the assessment based on self-reports of
learning or direct, authentic evidence of
• Is the assessment both practical and
• Do the assessment procedures support multiple
levels of analysis, and what is distinctive at each
• Is the assessment theoretically grounded and
generalizable to other contexts?
Assessing Diversity, Global, and Civic Learning: A Means
to Change in Higher Education
Robert G. Bringle, Patti H. Clayton, and William M. Plater
Emerging Assessment Issues
• Whose voices and perspectives are
included in the assessment process?
• Does the assessment approach align with
the nature of the learning process?
• Does the assessment process integrate all
relevant learning contexts?
Bringle, Clayton, & Plater, 2013
Key to successful assessment
• Connect assessment to overall institutional
assessment efforts
• Present assessment as a way to support
efforts to improve institutional effectiveness
• Develop an assessment program that is
• Design assessments that use multiple
• Use assessment results in ways that
ultimately improve curricular and cocurricular programs.
Effective activities
Fly UP