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Los sustantivos y los adjetivos

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Los sustantivos y los adjetivos
Los sustantivos y los
adjetivos
Español 3
BARQUERO
Masculine Nouns
Nouns that end in:
“LONERS”
are typically masculine nouns.
The Greek Influence:
Words ending in –ma, -pa, -ta and look like their English
equivalent are masculine.
El clima – the climate (m)
El mapa – the map (m)
El planeta – the planet (m)
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Feminine Nouns
Nouns that end in:
“DIÓNZA”
are typically feminine nouns.






La pluma –pen
La lección – lesson
La ciudad – city
La libertad – freedom
La juventud – youth
La lápiz - pencil
Nouns ending in -umbre are almost
always feminine.

La costumbre – habit
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Either or
Some nouns can be either masculine or feminine. Just change the
article to refer to either gender.
El artista or la artista (artist)
El dentista or la dentista (dentist)
El joven or la joven (teenager)
El modelo or la modelo (model)
Some nouns will always be masculine or feminine despite the
gender of the person to whom they refer to:
El bebé – baby (m)
La persona – person (f)
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Rule Breakers
There are always some exceptions to the
rule. When in doubt, always consult
your dictionary.
Rule Breakers:
El día – the day (m)
La mano – the hand (f)
La foto – the photo (f)
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Definite Articles
In English there is only one definite article:
the. In Spanish, there are four:
(masculine)
(singular)
(plural)
el
los
(feminine)
la
las
These articles agree in gender and
number with the nouns they precede.
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Indefinite Articles
In English there is two indefinite articles: a and
an. In Spanish, again, there are four:
(masculine)
(singular)
(plural)
un
unos
(feminine)
una
unas
These articles agree in gender and
number with the nouns they precede.
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Doubling Up!
Singular
nouns
Vowels
Plural
nouns
-s
consonents
El amigo
Los amigos
-es
El
programador
Los
programadores
y
-es
El rey
Los reyes
z
-ces
La actriz
Las actrices
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Doubling Up!
Singular
nouns
Plural nouns
-és
-eses
El inglés
Los ingleses
-án
-anes
El capitán
El capitanes
-ín
-ines
El jardín
El jardines
-ón
-ones
La reunión
La reuniones
-en
-enes
(+accent)
El examen
El exámenes
-s
-s
El lunes, El mes
Los lunes, los
meses
(not –és)
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Everything in Spanish must agree.
If you want to describe a person, place,
thing, or idea in detail, you must use
adjectives. Spanish adjectives always
agree in gender and number with the
nouns or pronouns they modify.
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Agreement.
In Spanish, adjectives end in - o in the
masculine and end in –a in the feminine.
Adjectives that end in –e, -a or consonants
have identical masculine and feminine forms.
Un amigo simpático, popular, realista, inteligente, y cortés.
Una amiga simpática, popular, realista, inteligente, y cortés.
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Watch those endings….
Adjectives ending in –dor, -án, ón end in –ora,
ana, ona
El estudiante es holgazán
No, la estudiante es holgazana.
El estudiante es trabajador
No, la estudiante es trabajadora.
•
These adjectives have an –es and –as ending in their plural forms
¡Ojo! Mayor, menor, superior, mejor remain the
same.
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Working with Nationalities
Most adjectives of nationality end in –a in the
feminine.
Un doctor español
Una artista francés
una doctora española
una artista francesa
¡Ojo! Nationalities that end in –a or stresses –í
or ú only have two forms: singular and plural.
 belga
 belgas
israelí
israelíes
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hindú
hindúes
Dropping the “o”
The masculine singular adjectives bueno, malo,
primero, and tercero become buen, mal,
primer and tercer when used before a noun.
un artista bueno
un estudiante malo
un buen artista
un mal estudiante
The adjective grande becomes gran before a
singular noun (masculine or feminine).
un gran problema
una gran reunión
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Correct form
Plural adjectives are formed according to
the same patterns as plural nouns.
Un estudiante serio y conservador
Unos estudiantes serios y conservadores.
Adjectives of description usually come
after the noun they modify.
Luisa es una estudiante mexicana.
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Stressing Adjectives
A few adjectives have two different meaning depending on
whether they are used before or after the noun they
modify.
Una ciudad grande
Una gran ciudad
a large city
a great city


El hombre pobre
El pobre hombre
the poor (not wealthy) man
the poor ( unfortunate) man


Una amiga vieja
Una vieja amiga
an old (elderly) friend
an old (of long standing) friend
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