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El Subjuntivo

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El Subjuntivo
EL
SUBJUNTIVO
USING THE
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
IN SPANISH
WHAT DIFFERENCES DO YOU SEE IN THE FOLLOWING
SENTENCES?
It’s raining outside.
I hope that it’s raining outside.
We will have a lot of homework.
I don’t want us to have a lot of
homework.
She eats healthy food.
It’s good that she eats healthy
food.
I’m certain that he is coming.
I doubt that he is coming.
THE SUBJUNCTIVE…
• Is a mood, not a tense.
*A tense deals with when something happens (past,
present).
Example: We’re going to the beach tomorrow.
*A mood expresses how a speaker feels about something.
Example: I am happy that we are going to the beach
tomorrow.
SUMMARY:
The Indicative:
The Subjunctive:
Certainty/Objectivity
Uncertainty/Subjectivity
Examples:
Examples:
Yo creo que vamos a ganar.
Dudo que vayamos a ganar.
Es cierto que no tenemos
tarea.
Es posible que no tengamos
tarea.
IN ORDER TO USE THE SUBJUNCTIVE…
1. There must be 2 clauses in a sentence separated by the word
que (that).
(A clause = a group of words with a subject and a conjugated verb)
2. There must be a subject change between clauses.
3. The main clause must be an expression of will (hope, want, wish),
doubt or denial, emotion, or an impersonal expression (it’s possible,
it’s necessary).
Main Clause
I doubt
He hopes
It’s good
We don’t believe
Connector
that
that
that
that
Subordinate Clause
the movie is good.
she doesn’t arrive late.
we don’t have homework.
they have the money.
WHEN THERE IS NO SUBJECT CHANGE…
An infinitive is often used.
Examples: I want to go with you. Quiero ir contigo.
It’ necessary to study every night. Es necesario estudiar
cada noche.
It’s good to exercise. Es bueno hacer ejercicio.
WOULD THE HIGH-LIGHTED VERB BE IN THE
SUBJUNCTIVE OR THE INDICATIVE MOOD?
1. We hope that you have a good time.
2. I think that this is difficult.
3. I wish that we didn’t have to leave.
4. I want to eat chocolate.
5. I hope that I have a good time.
6. It’s possible that it is snowing outside.
7. They doubt that we will win.
8. She believes that it is important.
9. We think that the book is good.
10. It’s terrible that she is sick.
VERBS THAT ARE IRREGULAR IN THE PRESENT TENSE
YO FORM ARE IRREGULAR IN THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Verb
Subjunctive Form
dar
dé
estar
esté
haber
haya
saber
sepa
ser
sea
ir
vaya
VERBS WITH SPELLING CHANGES:
•
Verbs ending in –car
the c changes to qu
Ex: yo sace – yo saque, tú saques, etc
• Verbs ending in –gar
the g becomes gu
Ex: yo juege – yo juegue, tú juegues, etc
• Verbs ending in –zar
the z changes to c
Ex: yo empieze – yo empiece, etc
OTHER SPELLING CHANGES:
• Verbs ending in –ger and –gir
the g changes to j before an a
Examples:
escoger - yo escoja
tú escojas
ella escoja
nosotros escojamos
ellos escojan
elegir - yo elija
tú elijas
él elija
nosotros elijamos
ellas elijan
OTHER SPELLING CHANGES:
• Verbs ending in –guir
the gu changes to g before an a
Example:
seguir - yo siga
tú sigas
ella siga
nosotros sigamos
ellos sigan
EXPRESSIONS OF WISHES, HOPE, DESIRE
Mr. Factual
El subjuntivo
es divertido.
Mr. Dreamer
Espero que sea
divertido estudiar
el subjuntivo.
EXAMPLES:
• Quiero que me llames después de clase.
I want you to call me after class.
• Esperamos que sirvan pizza hoy.
We hope that they serve pizza today.
• Ellos desean que ella venga temprano.
They want her to come early.
COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES WITH A VERB IN THE
SUBJUNCTIVE.
Deseo que mi madre/padre ___________________________.
Quiero que mis amigos _______________________________.
Espero que tú _______________________________________.
EXPRESSIONS OF EMOTION
Mr. Factual
Estudiamos el
subjuntivo
más.
Mr. Dreamer
Estoy contento
que
estudiemos el
subjuntivo más.
IN SPANISH, YOU MUST USE THE SUBJUNCTIVE AFTER AN
EXPRESSION OF EMOTION, REGARDLESS OF WHETHER OR NOT
THE INFORMATION IS TRUE.
Examples:
Estoy contenta que mi amiga llegue hoy.
Es malo que muchos estudiantes no comprendan la información.
Es triste que estés enfermo.
COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES WITH A VERB IN THE
SUBJUNCTIVE.
Me alegro de que ___________________________.
Es una lástima que __________________________.
Me encanta que ____________________________.
IMPERSONAL EXPRESSIONS
Mr. Factual
Aprendemos
usar el
subjuntivo.
Mr. Dreamer
Es importante
que aprendamos
usar el
subjuntivo.
TO PRESENT AN OPINION, THE SUBJUNCTIVE IS OFTEN USED WITH
THE FOLLOWING IMPERSONAL EXPRESSIONS.
(No) es bueno que…
(No) es malo que …
(No) es importante que…
(No) es posible que …
(No) es imposible que…
(No) es raro que …
(No) es necesario que …
(No) es probable que …
EXAMPLES:
Es importante que vengamos a tiempo.
Es posible que tengamos tarea esta noche.
Es raro que ellos no escuchen.
REMEMBER: SOME IMPERSONAL EXPRESSIONS
DEMONSTRATE CERTAINTY AND ARE USED WITH THE
INDICATIVE.
Es evidente que…
Es obvio que …
Es verdad que …
Es cierto que…
No es dudoso que …
Examples: Es evidente que ella dice la verdad.
Es cierto que él es muy inteligente.
VERBS OF INFLUENCE
Mr. Factual
Debes
estudiar
español todos
los días.
Mr. Dreamer
Recomiendo que
estudies español
todos los días.
VERBS OF DOUBT AND DENIAL
Mr. Factual
Creo que va a
llover hoy.
Mr. Dreamer
Dudo que vaya
a llover hoy.
EXAMPLES:
Dudo que él gane la elección.
Es dudoso que yo saque una buena nota en el examen.
Es improbable que ellos estén listos ahora.
COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES:
Dudo que mi amgio _________________________.
No es verdad que ___________________________.
Es improbable que __________________________.
OJALÁ
*Cannot be conjugated
*Is a word of Arabic origin that can be roughly translated as: “If Allah wants it” or
“God willing”
*Means the same thing as “hopefully” or “I hope” but has a little stronger meaning
than the verb esperar.
*Can be used with or without the word que.
*The verb after ojalá should be in the subjunctive.
Examples: ¡Ojalá que llueva! I hope it rains!
¡Ojalá ella lo haga! I hope she does it!
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