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Forming the Subjunctive

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Forming the Subjunctive
Subjunctive in Context
To set up the subjunctive there are three
things that must be in the sentence.
1. One of the setup words
2. The word “que”
3. A subject change
Subjunctive in Context
Sugerimos que ellos coman más vegetales.
Setup word:
ellos:
we suggest
subject change
que:
that
“coman” – they eat
This is the subjunctive
conjugation. They may or may
not do it, even though we
suggest that they do it.
Subjunctive in Context
Recomiendo que tú hagas la tarea.
Setup word:
I recommend
tú:
que:
that
subject change
“hagas” = you do
This is the subjunctive
conjugation. You may or may
not do it, even though I
recommend that you do it.
Subjunctive in Context
Ella quiere que yo viva en España.
Setup word:
yo:
she wants
subject change
que:
that
“viva” = I live (subjunctive)
I may or may not do it, even though
she wants me to. Note: In English
this would be, “She wants me to live
in Spain. In Spanish the infinitive is
not used, even though it sounds like it
should be.
Subjunctive in Context
Ojalá que entiendas bien esta lección.
(Hopefully you understand this lesson.)
Insistimos en que vosotros regreséis a tiempo.
(We insist that you all come back on time.)
Mi madre quiere que pongamos la mesa.
(My mather wants us to set the table.)
¿Sugieres que yo haga la tarea?
(Do you suggest that I give it to them?)
¿Esperáis que los Brown ganen el Super Bowl?
(Do you all hope that the Browns win the Super Bowl?)
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Forming the Subjunctive
In order to conjugate a verb in the present subjunctive, you have to
know well the conjugations of the present indicative (the present tense
that you already know).
First:
Use the “yo” form of the verb in the present tense.
hablo
Next:
vivo
com_
viv_
Drop the ‘o’
habl_
Last:
como
Add an opposite ending. This means for -ar verbs, use -er endings,
and for -er/-ir verbs, use -ar endings.
hable
coma
viva
Forming the Subjunctive
Subjunctive Verb Endings
-ar Verbs
-er Verbs
-ir Verbs
-e
-emos
-a
-amos
-a
-amos
-es
-éis
-as
-áis
-as
-áis
-e
-en
-a
-an
-a
-an
Forming the Subjunctive
Examples of Regular Verbs
caminar
camine
compartir
caminemos
comparta
compartamos
camines caminéis
compartas compartáis
camine
comparta
caminen
comprender
comprenda comprendamos
comprendas comprendáis
comprenda comparendan
compartan
IRREGULAR VERBS
• Stem changing verbs
-ar and -er stem changing verbs still have no stem change
for nosotros and vosotros in the present subjunctive.
However, certain -ir verbs do. Note the following.
Forming the Subjunctive
poder (ue)
acostarse (ue)
preferir (ie / i)
pueda
me acueste
prefiera
puedas
te acuestes
prefieras
pueda
se acueste
prefiera
podamos
nos acostemos
prefirimos
podáis
os acostéis
prefiráis
puedan
se acuesten
prefieran
Forming the Subjunctive
A note about -ir verbs
Stem changing verbs ending in -ir have multiple stem changes. They are the
only verbs that have stem changes in the preterit and present participle.
Whenever you see two choices after an infinitive the first is for the present
indicative and four conjugations of the subjunctive. The second is for the
nosotros / vosotros form of the subjunctive, the preterit, and the present
participle. See the following examples.
divertirse (ie / i)
present indicative
preterit
me divierto
nos divertimos
me divertí
nos divertimos
te diviertes
os divertís
te divertiste
os divertisteis
se divierte
se divierten
se divirtió
se divirtieron
present subjunctive
me divierta
nos divirtamos
te diviertas
os divirtáis
se divierta
se divierten
present participle
divirtiendo
Forming the Subjunctive
Here are some other -ir stem changing verbs that have changes in the
present indicative, present subjunctive, preterit, and present participle.
dormir (ue / u) = to sleep
medir (i / i) = to measure
mentir (ie / i) = to lie
morir (ue / u) = to die
pedir (i / i) = to aks for
preferir (ie / i) = to prefer
reírse (i / i) = to laugh
Verb Menu
servir (i / i) = to serve
vestirse (i / i) = to get dressed
Forming the Subjunctive
Spelling Changes for Pronunciation
Words ending with -gar / -car / -zar will have spelling changes in the
present subjunctive in order to maintain pronunciation.
For example, what is the subjunctive of “pagar”?
If you follow the earlier steps, you would say “page”.
To fish
__________
1) pescar =
To look for
4) buscar = __________
To pay for
2) pagar = __________
To turn off
5) apagar = __________
eat lunch
3) almorzar = To
__________
organize
6) organizar = To
__________
¿Cómo son similares los verbos arriba?
-CAR
-GAR
-ZAR
Pescar
Pagar
Almorzar
Buscar
Apagar
Organizar
~Respeto al subjuntivo~
En
En
En
TODAS
TODAS
TODAS
-CAR tienen este cambio _________.
c > qu
formas, los verbos _______
g > gu
formas, los verbos -GAR
_______ tienen este cambio _________.
z>c
formas, los verbos -ZAR
_______ tienen este cambio _________.
Forming the Subjunctive
Spelling Changes for Pronunciation
To solve this problem with -car verbs “que” is in their endings. Again, you
may remember a similar change in the first conjugation of the preterit.
However, in the subjunctive the spelling change is throughout all of the
conjugations.
clasificar
clasifique
clasifiquemos
clasifiques
clasifiquéis
clasifique
clasifiquen
Forming the Subjunctive
Spelling Changes for Pronunciation
To solve this problem verbs that end with -gar have “gue” in their endings.
You may remember a similar change in the first conjugation of the preterit.
However, in the subjunctive the spelling change is throughout all of the
conjugations.
pagar
pague
paguemos
pagues paguéis
pague
paguen
Forming the Subjunctive
Spelling Changes for Pronunciation
The problem with -zar verbs is that the letters “ze” are never combined in
Spanish. Whenever that happens, the z changes to c.
almorzar
almuerce
almorcemos
almuerces
almorcéis
almuerce
almuercen
Verb Menu
D ar
dé, des, dé, demos, deis, den
I r
vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayáis, vayan
S er
sea, seas, sea, seamos, seáis, sean
H aber
haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, hayáis, hayan
E star
esté, estés, esté, estemos, estéis, estén
S aber
sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepáis, sepan
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Things to Keep in Mind
If there is no subject change, then there is no subjunctive.
I want to go with you.
Quiero ir contigo.
I want you to go with me. Quiero que vayas conmigo.
The second example uses the subjunctive because there is a subject change.
I can, I should, I need to, I have to, I want to, I’m going to, etc.
All of these are followed by an infinitive in Spanish if there is no subject change.
Don’t over think this. You knew how to do this in Spanish I.
Things to Keep in Mind
There is no future subjunctive.
Again, using esperar (to hope) or ojalá (hopefully) can be tricky.
Ella espera que vengan.
She hopes that they (will) come. (subjunctive)
Ojalá que él aprenda.
Hopefully he (will) learn. (subjunctive)
Even though in English we would use the future tense, it isn’t used in these
cases in Spanish. You can see that the two sentences above have two
possible translations. Basically, if everything else tells you that you should
use the subjunctive (setup verb / que / subject change) you should use it.
But don’t forget...
We hope that we’ll be able to go.
Esperamos poder ir. (infinitive)
If there is no subject change, don’t use the subjunctive.
Things to Keep in Mind
Be careful with “querer”.
As mentioned on previous slides, when a subjunctive sentence that uses “querer” is
translated into English, the subjunctive verb is an infinitive. This confuses many
students. In fact, it’s probably the #1 mistake that students make with the
subjunctive. Note the following.
Quiero que ellos estudien más.
I want them to study more.
Queremos que los niños se acuesten ahora.
We want the kids to go to bed now.
¿Queréis que yo os lo dé?
Do you guys want me to give it to you?
Sus padres quieren que ella saque la basura.
Her parents want her to take out the trash.
Mi mamá quiere que sepamos la verdad.
My mom wants us to know the truth.
Él quiere que tú seas simpático.
He wants you to be nice.
Ellos no quieren que ella vaya.
They don’t want her to go.
Mi papá quiere que yo ponga la mesa.
My dad wants me to set the table.
Things to Keep in Mind
Be careful with “querer”.
It’s not always wrong to use an infinitive after querer.
Remember: If there is no subject change, there is no subjunctive.
I want to call them.
Quiero llamarlos.
She wants to come.
Ella quiere venir.
They want to have fun.
Ellos quieren divertirse.
We want to laugh.
Queremos reírnos
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