Forming the Subjunctive
Learn it! Practice it! Master it! LOVE IT!!! What is “subjunctive”? The present subjunctive is a “mood” in Spanish. It is used to express uncertainty, doubt, emotional reaction, or future actions. The subjunctive is the opposite of the indicative mood, which has all of the tenses that you already know. Setup Words The subjunctive doesn’t just “show up” out of no where. Something has to cause it, or make it necessary. These are some common culprits: • querer (ie) = to want • sugerir (ie) = to suggest • recomendar (ie) = to recommend • insistir en = to insist • esperar = to hope • ojalá que = hopefully / it’s hopeful • Es ….que +new subject Its….(dudoso) that ….new conjugated verb Setup Words I want you to do something, but you may not do it. I suggest that you read the rest of this, but… Your parents recommend that you wash the dishes right away, but you might not do it at all. A friend insists that you go with him, but you might not want to go. You hope that something happens, but it may not happen. It is important that you study, but you might not. Subjunctive in Context To set up the subjunctive there are three things that must be in the sentence. 1. One of the setup words 2. The word “que” 3. A subject change Subjunctive in Context Sugerimos que ellos duerman más. que: that “duerman” = they sleep This is the subjunctive conjugation. They may or may not do it, even though we suggest that they do it. Subjunctive in Context Recomiendo que tú hagas la tarea. Setup word: I recommend tú: que: that subject change “hagas” = you do This is the subjunctive conjugation. You may or may not do it, even though I recommend that you do it. Subjunctive in Context Ella quiere que yo viva en España. Setup word: she wants yo: que: that subject change “viva” = I live (subjunctive) I may or may not do it, even though she wants me to Note: sentences with Querer will translate to sound like an infinitive is in the sentence when it actually isn’t. Subjunctive in Context Please remember that the examples that use “querer” are going to sound different in their English translations than the others. Consider the following example. English: I want you to go to the store. Many students want to say: Te quiero ir a la tienda. (BUT THAT’S WRONG!!!) The right translation is: Quiero que vayas a la tienda. The red example is not Spanish grammar, even though it sounds or looks like it should be. Use the subjunctive after querer with que and a subject change. Subjunctive in Context Ojalá que entiendas bien esta lección. (Hopefully you understand this lesson.) Insistimos en que vosotros regreséis a tiempo. (We insist that you all come back on time.) Mi madre quiere que pongamos la mesa. (My want wants us to set the table.) ¿Esperáis que los Bears ganen el Super Bowl? (Do you guys hope that the Browns win the Super Bowl?) ¿Es imprescendible que estudiemos? (Is it essential that we study?) Forming the Subjunctive In order to conjugate a verb in the present subjunctive, you have to know well the conjugations of the present indicative (the present tense that you already know). First: Use the “yo” form of the verb in the present tense. hablo Next: vivo com_ viv_ Drop the ‘o’ habl_ Last: como Add an opposite ending. This means for -ar verbs, use -er endings, and for -er/-ir verbs, use -ar endings. hable coma viva Forming the Subjunctive Subjunctive Verb Endings -ar Verbs -er Verbs -ir Verbs -e -emos -a -amos -a -amos -es -éis -as -áis -as -áis -e -en -a -an -a -an Forming the Subjunctive Examples of Regular Verbs caminar camine compartir caminemos comparta compartamos camines caminéis compartas compartáis camine comparta caminen comprender comprenda comprendamos comprendas comprendáis comprenda comparendan compartan Forming the Subjunctive If there is a stem change or other spelling change in it, the change will be seen in the subjunctive. Consider the following. Infinitive Present Indicative Present Subjunctive acostarse (ue) me acuesto me acueste decir digo diga divertirse (ie) me divierto me divierta dormir (ue) duermo duerma entender (ie) entiendo entienda poner pongo ponga preferir (ie) prefiero prefiera reírse (i) río ría venir vengo venga Forming the Subjunctive The boot still applies to ar and er verbs, when you use present subjunctive. However, certain -ir verbs lose the verb and get the stem change everywhere. Note the following. poder (ue) acostarse (ue) preferir (ie / i) pueda me acueste prefiera puedas te acuestes prefieras pueda se acueste prefiera podamos nos acostemos prefirimos podáis os acostéis prefiráis puedan se acuesten prefieran Go to wordreference.com and use the conjugator to look up these words. Fill in their present subjunctive on your worksheet. Querer Preferir Pensar Mentir Defender mostrar volver encontrar elegir jugar Hint: you’re checking for a) what the stem change is, and b) if it’s a subjunctive boot or not. Look up these words also. They’re irregular Dar (to give) Saber (to know info/how to do something) Ir (to go) Ser (to be, permanent) Estar(to be, temp) Forming the Subjunctive Spelling Changes for Pronunciation Words ending with -gar / -car / -zar will have spelling changes in the present subjunctive in order to maintain pronunciation. For example, what is the subjunctive of “pagar”? If you follow the earlier steps, you would say “page”. The problem with that is that the hard “G” sound is lost. The word should sound like “PA-gay”. The combination of “ge” makes it “PA-hey”. A similar problem arises with -car verbs. “ce” sound like “say”, but the sound should be “kay”. Forming the Subjunctive Spelling Changes for Pronunciation To solve this problem verbs that end with -gar have “gue” in their endings. You may remember a similar change in the first conjugation of the preterit. However, in the subjunctive the spelling change is throughout all of the conjugations. pagar pague paguemos pagues paguéis pague paguen Forming the Subjunctive Spelling Changes for Pronunciation To solve this problem with -car verbs “que” is in their endings. Again, you may remember a similar change in the first conjugation of the preterit. However, in the subjunctive the spelling change is throughout all of the conjugations. clasificar clasifique clasifiquemos clasifiques clasifiquéis clasifique clasifiquen Forming the Subjunctive Spelling Changes for Pronunciation The problem with -zar verbs is that the letters “ze” are never combined in Spanish. Whenever that happens, the z changes to c. bostezar bostece bostecemos bosteces bostecéis bostece bostecen Things to Keep in Mind If there is no subject change, then there is no subjunctive. I want to go with you. Quiero ir contigo. I want you to go with me. Quiero que vayas conmigo. The second example uses the subjunctive because there is a subject change. I can, I should, I need to, I have to, I want to, I’m going to, etc. All of these are followed by an infinitive in Spanish if there is no subject change. Don’t over think this. You knew how to do this in Spanish I. Things to Keep in Mind Be careful with “querer”. It’s not always wrong to use an infinitive after querer. Remember: If there is no subject change, there is no subjunctive. I want to call them. Quiero llamarlos. VS I want them to call me Quiero que ellos me llamen. She wants to come. Ella quiere venir. VS She wants me to come. Ella quiere que yo venga. Some practice As you listen, read along with the next slide. Write the missing words on your worksheet. The next-next slide will have the answers on it, so do them all, and then go check your work. *If you have time, try to translate the phrases into Best English. What’s missing?? 1. _________importante que __________________ para el examen lunes. 2. Es __________________ que la deforestación __________________ el medio ambiente. 3. No ___________________que ellas me _____________________. 4. ________________________que los inventos ____________________ un problema medioambiental que _____________________a la población. 5. ____________________que tantas personas ____________________ regalos a la gente sin hogar este _________________. Check yo stuff 1. Es importante que estudies para el examen lunes. 2. Es dudoso que la deforestación proteja el medio ambiente. 3. No quiero que ellas me critiquen. 4. Recomiendo que los inventos solucionen un problema medioambiental que afecta a la población. 5. Ojalá que tantas personas donen regalos a la gente sin hogar este navidad. Extra Practice if you have time… 1. It is essential that you know about politics. 2. I recommend that you listen to the warning. 3. We insist that y’all respect the environment. 4. It is important that you continue on with your commitments.