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Forming the Subjunctive

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Forming the Subjunctive
Learn it!
Practice it!
Master it!
LOVE IT!!!
What is “subjunctive”?
The present subjunctive is a “mood” in Spanish.
It is used to express uncertainty, doubt, emotional
reaction, or future actions.
The subjunctive is the opposite of the indicative
mood, which has all of the tenses that you already
know.
Setup Words
The subjunctive doesn’t just “show up” out of no where.
Something has to cause it, or make it necessary. These
are some common culprits:
• querer (ie) = to want
• sugerir (ie) = to suggest
• recomendar (ie) = to recommend
• insistir en = to insist
• esperar = to hope
• ojalá que = hopefully / it’s hopeful
• Es ….que +new subject Its….(dudoso) that ….new
conjugated verb
Setup Words
I want you to do something, but you may not do it.
I suggest that you read the rest of this, but…
Your parents recommend that you wash the dishes right away, but you
might not do it at all.
A friend insists that you go with him, but you might not want to go.
You hope that something happens, but it may not happen.
It is important that you study, but you might not.
Subjunctive in Context
To set up the subjunctive there are three
things that must be in the sentence.
1. One of the setup words
2. The word “que”
3. A subject change
Subjunctive in Context
Sugerimos que ellos duerman más.
que:
that
“duerman” = they sleep
This is the subjunctive
conjugation. They may or may
not do it, even though we
suggest that they do it.
Subjunctive in Context
Recomiendo que tú hagas la tarea.
Setup word:
I recommend
tú:
que:
that
subject change
“hagas” = you do
This is the subjunctive
conjugation. You may or may
not do it, even though I
recommend that you do it.
Subjunctive in Context
Ella quiere que yo viva en España.
Setup word:
she wants
yo:
que:
that
subject change
“viva” = I live (subjunctive)
I may or may not do it, even though
she wants me to
Note: sentences with Querer will translate to sound
like an infinitive is in the sentence when it actually isn’t.
Subjunctive in Context
Please remember that the examples that use “querer” are
going to sound different in their English translations than the
others. Consider the following example.
English:
I want you to go to the store.
Many students want to say: Te quiero ir a la tienda. (BUT THAT’S WRONG!!!)
The right translation is:
Quiero que vayas a la tienda.
The red example is not Spanish grammar, even though it sounds or
looks like it should be. Use the subjunctive after querer with que and a
subject change.
Subjunctive in Context
Ojalá que entiendas bien esta lección.
(Hopefully you understand this lesson.)
Insistimos en que vosotros regreséis a tiempo.
(We insist that you all come back on time.)
Mi madre quiere que pongamos la mesa.
(My want wants us to set the table.)
¿Esperáis que los Bears ganen el Super Bowl?
(Do you guys hope that the Browns win the Super Bowl?)
¿Es imprescendible que estudiemos?
(Is it essential that we study?)
Forming the Subjunctive
In order to conjugate a verb in the present subjunctive, you have to
know well the conjugations of the present indicative (the present tense
that you already know).
First:
Use the “yo” form of the verb in the present tense.
hablo
Next:
vivo
com_
viv_
Drop the ‘o’
habl_
Last:
como
Add an opposite ending. This means for -ar verbs, use -er endings,
and for -er/-ir verbs, use -ar endings.
hable
coma
viva
Forming the Subjunctive
Subjunctive Verb Endings
-ar Verbs
-er Verbs
-ir Verbs
-e
-emos
-a
-amos
-a
-amos
-es
-éis
-as
-áis
-as
-áis
-e
-en
-a
-an
-a
-an
Forming the Subjunctive
Examples of Regular Verbs
caminar
camine
compartir
caminemos
comparta
compartamos
camines caminéis
compartas compartáis
camine
comparta
caminen
comprender
comprenda comprendamos
comprendas comprendáis
comprenda comparendan
compartan
Forming the Subjunctive
If there is a stem change or other spelling change in it, the change will be
seen in the subjunctive. Consider the following.
Infinitive
Present Indicative
Present Subjunctive
acostarse (ue)
me acuesto
me acueste
decir
digo
diga
divertirse (ie)
me divierto
me divierta
dormir (ue)
duermo
duerma
entender (ie)
entiendo
entienda
poner
pongo
ponga
preferir (ie)
prefiero
prefiera
reírse (i)
río
ría
venir
vengo
venga
Forming the Subjunctive
The boot still applies to ar and er verbs, when you use present subjunctive. However,
certain -ir verbs lose the verb and get the stem change everywhere. Note the following.
poder (ue)
acostarse (ue)
preferir (ie / i)
pueda
me acueste
prefiera
puedas
te acuestes
prefieras
pueda
se acueste
prefiera
podamos
nos acostemos
prefirimos
podáis
os acostéis
prefiráis
puedan
se acuesten
prefieran
Go to wordreference.com and
use the conjugator to look up
these words. Fill in their present
subjunctive on your worksheet.
Querer
Preferir
Pensar
Mentir
Defender
mostrar
volver
encontrar
elegir
jugar
Hint: you’re checking for a) what the stem change is, and
b) if it’s a subjunctive boot or not. 
Look up these words also.
They’re irregular
Dar (to give) Saber (to know info/how to
do something)
Ir (to go)
Ser (to be, permanent) Estar(to be, temp)
Forming the Subjunctive
Spelling Changes for Pronunciation
Words ending with -gar / -car / -zar will have spelling changes in the
present subjunctive in order to maintain pronunciation.
For example, what is the subjunctive of “pagar”?
If you follow the earlier steps, you would say “page”.
The problem with that is that the hard “G” sound is lost. The word should
sound like “PA-gay”. The combination of “ge” makes it “PA-hey”.
A similar problem arises with -car verbs. “ce” sound like “say”, but the
sound should be “kay”.
Forming the Subjunctive
Spelling Changes for Pronunciation
To solve this problem verbs that end with -gar have “gue” in their endings.
You may remember a similar change in the first conjugation of the preterit.
However, in the subjunctive the spelling change is throughout all of the
conjugations.
pagar
pague
paguemos
pagues paguéis
pague
paguen
Forming the Subjunctive
Spelling Changes for Pronunciation
To solve this problem with -car verbs “que” is in their endings. Again, you
may remember a similar change in the first conjugation of the preterit.
However, in the subjunctive the spelling change is throughout all of the
conjugations.
clasificar
clasifique
clasifiquemos
clasifiques
clasifiquéis
clasifique
clasifiquen
Forming the Subjunctive
Spelling Changes for Pronunciation
The problem with -zar verbs is that the letters “ze” are never combined in
Spanish. Whenever that happens, the z changes to c.
bostezar
bostece
bostecemos
bosteces
bostecéis
bostece
bostecen
Things to Keep in Mind
If there is no subject change, then there is no subjunctive.
I want to go with you.
Quiero ir contigo.
I want you to go with me. Quiero que vayas conmigo.
The second example uses the subjunctive because there is a subject change.
I can, I should, I need to, I have to, I want to, I’m going to, etc.
All of these are followed by an infinitive in Spanish if there is no subject change.
Don’t over think this. You knew how to do this in Spanish I.
Things to Keep in Mind
Be careful with “querer”.
It’s not always wrong to use an infinitive after querer.
Remember: If there is no subject change, there is no subjunctive.
I want to call them.
Quiero llamarlos.
VS
I want them to call me
Quiero que ellos me llamen.
She wants to come.
Ella quiere venir.
VS
She wants me to come.
Ella quiere que yo venga.
Some practice
As you listen, read along with the next
slide. Write the missing words on your
worksheet.
The next-next slide will have the answers
on it, so do them all, and then go check
your work. 
*If you have time, try to translate the
phrases into Best English.
What’s missing??
1. _________importante que __________________
para el examen lunes.
2. Es __________________ que la deforestación
__________________ el medio ambiente.
3. No ___________________que ellas me
_____________________.
4. ________________________que los inventos
____________________ un problema
medioambiental que _____________________a la
población.
5. ____________________que tantas personas
____________________ regalos a la gente sin
hogar este _________________.
Check yo stuff
1. Es importante que estudies para el examen
lunes.
2. Es dudoso que la deforestación proteja el
medio ambiente.
3. No quiero que ellas me critiquen.
4. Recomiendo que los inventos solucionen un
problema medioambiental que afecta a la
población.
5. Ojalá que tantas personas donen regalos a
la gente sin hogar este navidad.
Extra Practice if you have time…
1. It is essential that you know about
politics.
2. I recommend that you listen to the
warning.
3. We insist that y’all respect the
environment.
4. It is important that you continue on with
your commitments.
Fly UP