...

A Model of Good Teaching

by user

on
10

views

Report

Comments

Transcript

A Model of Good Teaching
Understanding the Learning
Process as the Gateway to
Better Teaching
Dr. Michele DiPietro
Executive Director,
Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning
Kennesaw State University
[email protected]
http://www.kennesaw.edu/cetl
Quick Problem to Solve
There are 26 sheep and 10
goats on a ship. How old
is the captain?
Adults: Unsolvable
5th graders: Over 75%
attempted to provide a
numerical answer.
After giving the answer “36”
one student explained
“Well, you need to add or
subtract or multiply in
problems like this, and this
one seemed to work best if
I add.”
(Bransford & Stein, ’93)
2
The Moral:
We must really understand how students
process what we teach them!!
How Learning Works
Joint work with former
Carnegie Mellon
colleagues
Synthesis of 50 years of
research
•
•
Constant determinants of
learning
Principles apply crossculturally
–
Translations to Mandarin
and Korean in progress
Objectives
Following this workshop, participants should be able
to:
1. List and discuss the seven principles of learning
2. Describe the research and the evidence behind
each principle
3. Generate pedagogical strategies to support
7 Learning Principles
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Students’ prior knowledge can help or hinder learning.
How students organize knowledge influences how they learn and
apply what they know.
Students’ motivation determines, directs, and sustains what they
do to learn.
To develop mastery, students must acquire component skills,
practice integrating them, and know when to apply what they have
learned.
Goal-directed practice coupled with targeted feedback enhances
the quality of students’ learning.
Students’ current level of development interacts with the social,
emotional, and intellectual climate of the course to impact learning.
To become self-directed learners, students must learn to monitor
and adjust their approaches to learning.
“I consider that a man's brain originally
is like a little empty attic, and you have
to stock it with such furniture as you
choose.” (Sherlock Holmes)
1. Prior Knowledge can help or hinder learning
Prior knowledge can hinder learning
If it is:
•
Inappropriate
•
Insufficient
• Declarative vs. Procedural knowledge
•
Inaccurate
Some examples of inaccurate prior
knowledge (misconceptions)
Bricks A & B are identical. The force
When the switch S is closed, do the
following increase, decrease, or
needed to hold B in place
stay the same?
(deeper than A) is
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
The intensity of A & B
The intensity of C
The current drawn from the
battery
The voltage drop across each
bulb
The power dissipated in the
circuit
a) Larger than
b) The same as
c)
Smaller than
the force required to hold A in place
10
Mazur (1996)
More misconceptions
Science: Seasons happens because the earth orbits
the sun elliptically (Schneps and Sadler 1988)
Math: Probabilities are all uniform on the sample
space
Statistics: Association implies causation
Psychology: People use only 10% of their brains
What misconceptions do students have about
your field?
But even if prior knowledge is
correct…
A
6
J
7
 Each card has a letter on one side and a number on the other.
 Rule: If a card has a vowel on one side, it must have an even
number on the other side.
 Questions: What is the minimum number of cards that must
be turned over to check whether this rule is being followed?
Which cards are they? (Wason 1966, 1977)
Reasoning Using Prior
Knowledge
16
Coke
Beer
23
 Each card represents a student at a bar. The age of
each student is on one side and what he is drinking is on
the other.
 Rule: If a person is drinking a beer, then he is over 21.
 Question: Which card(s) must be turned over to check
whether everyone’s behavior is legal? (Griggs & Cox, 1982)
The moral
•
Prior knowledge lies inert most of the time
•
Prior knowledge must be activated to be useful
What we owe our students
Learning environments that
• Value and engage what students bring to the table
• Actively confront and challenge misconceptions
2. How students organize knowledge influences
how they learn and apply what they know
How is information processed in the brain?
(Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968; Baddeley,
1986)
Memorize the following list:
TSXCOBCAFTNB
Try again:
FOXABCTNTCBS
A Statistics Example
Memorize the following formula:
f (x) 
1
2  5
e
1 ( x10)

2
5
2
A Chemistry Example
Memorize the following formula:
H
H
H—C—C—OH
H H
An Electrical Engineering Example
Memorize the following circuit:
Knowledge Organization
We all “chunk” knowledge and organize it in the brain
by connecting new information to existing
knowledge
The same knowledge can be organized in multiple
ways
Experts have mental structures very different from
novices/students
How Novices & Experts Differ
(Chi, Feltovich & Glaser, 1981)
Novices’ Groupings
Novice 1: “These deal with blocks on an
inclined plane”
Novice 6: “Blocks on inclined planes with
angles”
Experts’ Groupings
Expert 2: “Conservation of Energy”
Expert 4: “These can be done from
Energy considerations”
23
How Novices & Experts Differ
Experts have a higher density of connections
Experts’ structures rely on deep underlying principles
Experts have more flexible structures
These features affect memory, meaning-making, and
transfer!
An Example…
If the balloons popped, the sound wouldn't be able to carry
since everything would be too far away from the correct floor. A
closed window would also prevent the sound from carrying,
since most buildings tend to be well insulated. Since the whole
operation depends on a steady flow of electricity, a break in
the middle of the wire would also cause problems. Of course,
the fellow could shout, but the human voice is not loud enough
to carry that far. An additional problem is that a string could
break on the instrument. Then there could be no
accompaniment to the message. It is clear that the best
situation would involve less distance. Then there would be
fewer potential problems. With face to face contact, the least
number of things could go wrong. (p. 719)
Bransford & Johnson, 1972
Try now 
If the balloons popped, the sound wouldn't be able
to carry since everything would be too far away from
the correct floor. A closed window would also prevent
the sound from carrying, since most buildings tend to
be well insulated. Since the whole operation depends
on a steady flow of electricity, a break in the middle of
the wire would also cause problems. Of course, the
fellow could shout, but the human voice is not loud
enough to carry that far. An additional problem is that a
string could break on the instrument. Then there could
be no accompaniment to the message. It is clear that
the best situation would involve less distance. Then
there would be fewer potential problems. With face to
face contact, the least number of things could go
wrong. (p. 719)
Bransford & Johnson, 1972
What we owe our students
Learning environments that not only transmit
knowledge, but
• Help students organize their knowledge in
productive ways
• Actively monitor students’ construction of
knowledge
3. Students’ motivation determines, direct, and
sustains what they do to learn
.
Goals/Value
•
•
•
If students cannot find any value in what
you are offering them, they won’t find
motivation to do it
Student value multiple goals
Some goals are in competition
Goals/Value
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Rewards & Punishments
Learning
Competence
Performance approach/avoid
Social
Affective
Purpose/Integrity/Authenticity
What do students value in your fields?
Expectancy
Expectancy: expectation of a successful outcome
Three main components of this positive expectation:
(1) Outcome expectancy: beliefs that certain
behaviors are causally connected to desired
outcomes
(2) Efficacy expectancy: that one has the ability to do
the work necessary to succeed (self-efficacy)
(3) Environmental expectancy: that the environment
will be supportive of one’s efforts
(1) Outcome expectancy
A belief that certain behaviors are causally connected
to desired outcome (Vroom 1964)
 Generally accepted for studying and learning
 Some contested areas:
o
o
o
Coming to class helps learning and performance
Keeping up with the readings helps learning and
performance
Others?
(2) Self-efficacy and beliefs about learning
Self-efficacy: belief that one has the ability to do the work
necessary to succeed (Bandura 1997).
Research studying students’ beliefs about themselves and
about how learning works:
Learning is fast and easy vs.
effortful
You “have it” or you don’t vs.
I’m no good at math
vs.
I just can’t draw
vs.
Learning is slow and
The mind is like a muscle
I lack experience in math
I could use drawing lessons
How would student behaviors be affected if they endorsed
the beliefs on the left vs. the ones on the right?
(3) Belief in a supportive environment
Environmental expectancy: Belief that the environment
will be supportive of one’s efforts (Ford 1992)
What matters here is students’ perception:
If I do what it takes to succeed, will it work out?
Perceptions of:
• Instructor’s fairness
• Feasibility of the task
• Instructor’s approachability/helpfulness
• Team members’ ability and effort
…
Effects of value, self-efficacy, & environment on
motivation
Individual Reflection and
Paired Activity
Reflecting on Past Experiences as a Student
• Recall a learning situation (e.g. a course, assignment, etc.) in which you
were very motivated and compare it to a similar situation (e.g. same discipline,
same course) in which you were rather unmotivated. List at least 2 - 3 factors
which seemed to influence your level of motivation. Try to include at least one
factor which you think influenced many other students’ motivations as well. (3
- 5 minutes)
Discuss in pairs and prepare to report:
• After quickly reviewing each person’s examples, identify the common
factors across both stories and classify them according to the motivational
concepts we discussed (5 minutes)
What we owe our students
Learning environments that
• Stay up-to-date with what students value
• Engage multiple goals
• Build self-efficacy
• Are responsive and helpful
The next two
principles pertain to
learning skills
Plan and Teach Activity
1. Write a set of instructions to teach somebody to tie
their shoe laces
2. Pair up with somebody and try to teach them from
your instructions, then switch
3. What issues did this activity bring up for you as
you watched your partner try to “learn” from your
instructions?
4. To develop mastery, students must acquire component skills,
practice integrating them, and know when to apply what they
have learned
5. Goal-directed practice coupled with targeted feedback
enhances the quality of students’ learning
“It’s not teaching that causes learning.
Attempts by the learner to perform cause
learning, dependent upon the quality of
feedback and opportunities to use it.” --Grant
Wiggins
Goals
•Explicit
•Before the
performance
Practice
• Scaffolded
• Zone of
Proximal
Development
(Vygotsky 1978)
Feedback
•Frequent
•Timely
•Constructive
An important caveat
The Stroop Effect (1935)
XXXX
XXXX
XXXX
XXXX
XXXX
XXXX
XXXX
RED
YELLOW
BLUE
GREEN
RED
GREEN
BLUE
YELLOW
RED
GREEN
BLUE
YELLOW
BLUE
RED
An Example–Learning to Drive
Initially:
• students rely on very general rules and problem-solving skills, e.g.
following a step-by-step example, matching variables in equations
• working memory load is very high
• performance is very slow, tedious and error-prone
With little practice:
• very general rules are instantiated with discipline-specific details to
make new, more efficient productions
• performance becomes faster
• many errors are detected and eliminated with feedback
With a great deal of practice:
• related steps are compiled and “automatized” by collapsing steps
• less attention is needed to perform
• performance continues to speed up
• experts may lose the ability to verbalize all steps
The expert blindspot
Sprague and Stuart (2000)
What we owe our students
Learning environments where educators
• Actively hunt down their expert blindspots
Learning environments that
• Emphasize both individual skills and their
integration
• Explicitly teach for transfer
• Provide multiple opportunities for authentic
practice
•
•
Oriented toward clear goals
Coupled with targeted feedback
6. Students’ current level of development interacts with the social,
emotional, and intellectual climate of the course to impact
learning
Case Study
• Please read over the case study
• As we go through the models and the research, see
how they give you insights into the various
students’ behaviors
• We’ll look at 3 umbrella theories
– Intellectual Development
– Social Identity Development
– Stereotype Threat
• Use the table in the handout to take notes on the
case
• We’ll discuss the case after the theories
From Morning-Glory to Petersburg (The World
Book, 1928)
“Organized knowledge in story and
picture”
confronts through dusty glass
an eye grown dubious.
I can recall when knowledge still was
pure,
not contradictory, pleasurable
as cutting out a paper doll.
You opened up a book and there it
was:
everything just as promised, from
Kurdistan to Mormons, Gum
Arabic to Kumquat, neither more nor
less.
Facts could be kept separate
by a convention; that was what
made childhood possible.
Now knowledge finds me out;
in all its risible untidiness
it traces me to each address,
dragging in things I never thought
about.
I don’t invite what facts can be
held at arm’s length; a family
of jeering irresponsibles always
comes along gypsy-style
and there you have them all
forever on your hands. It never pays.
If I could still extrapolate
the morning-glory on the gate
from Petersburg in history—but it’s
too late.
--Adrienne Rich
Developmental Theories
• Describe how our views of certain concepts (e.g.,
knowledge, morality, culture, identity) evolve over time
from unsophisticated positions to ones that embrace
complexity
• Development is holistic but differential
• Development is described as a response to intellectual,
social, or emotional challenges, where students begin to
question values and assumptions inculcated by parents
and society, and start to develop their own
• Development can be described in stages
• It describes students in the aggregate, not individually
• Development is not always forward
• Can be foreclosed or even backwards
Theories of Intellectual
Development
Describe how approaches to knowledge develop over
time
• Perry developmental scheme
– 464 interviews with 140 Harvard (male) students in 50’s
and 60’s -- Perry (1970)
• Women’s ways of knowing
– 135 women (90 students) in late 70’s and 80’ in the US -Belenky at al. (1986)
• Gendered-patters in knowing and reasoning
– 101 students (50 males) at Miami University, followed for 5
years (86-91) -- Baxter-Magolda (1992)
Stages of Intellectual Development
Perry
Belenky
et al.
Silence
Dualism
Multiplicity
Relativism
Commitment
Received K.
Subjective K.
Procedural
K.
Constructed
K.
Separated
Connected
BaxterMagolda
Absolute
K.
Transitional
K.
Independent
K.
Contextual K.
Intellectual Development
I.
Dualism/Received/Absolute Knowledge




Knowledge: viewed as received Truth
What matters: facts–things are right or wrong
Teacher: has the answers
Learning: Memorizing notes for tests, getting the
A is what counts
Frustration: Why won’t the teacher answer my
questions?
Intellectual Development
II.
Transitional Knowledge




Knowledge: partially certain, partially uncertain
What matters: facts–things are right or wrong
Teacher: has the answers
Learning: Memorizing notes for tests, getting the
A is what counts
Frustration: Why won’t the teacher answer my
questions?
Intellectual Development
III.
Multiplicity/Subjective/Independent Knowledge



Knowledge: a matter of opinion
Teacher: not the authority–just another opinion
Learning: a purely personal exercise
Frustration: How can the teacher evaluate my work?
Intellectual Development
IV.
Relativism/Procedural/Contextual Knowledge




Knowledge: based on evidence
What matters: supporting your argument with
reasons
Teacher: Conversation partner, acts as a guide,
shows the direction
Learning: depends on the context–what we
“know” is colored by perspectives and
assumptions
Questions asked: What are more sources of
information?
Intellectual Development
V.
Commitment/Constructed Knowledge




Knowledge: leads to personal actions outside the
classroom
What matters: facts, feelings and perspectives
and how I will act upon them
Teacher: a source among other sources
Learning: Making choices, acting on and taking
responsibilities for these choices
Questions asked: What were the results of my action?
What does that mean about my future actions &
principles I live by?
Adapted from Perry (1970), Belenky et al. (1986), and Baxter-Magolda (1992)
Intellectual Development by Year
Baxter-Magolda (1992)
Social Identity Development
Several models proposed for various social identities
(various races/ethnicities, sexual orientations,
disabilities etc)
Describe trajectories which culminate with the
establishment of a positive social identity as a
member of a specific group
• Includes member of dominant groups
Hardiman-Jackson Model (1992)
Synthesizes commonalities of other models
Naïvete
|
Active—Acceptance—Passive
|
Active—Resistance—Passive
|
Redefinition
|
Internalization
Classroom Climate
Students work out these developmental challenges in
the context of the classroom environment.
Perceptions of a “chilly” climate affect student
learning, critical thinking, and preparation for a
career (Pascarella et al. 1997; Whitt et al 1999).
Climate is best understood as a continuum:
Explicitly
Marginalizing
Implicitly
Implicitly
Marginalizing Centralizing
DeSurra & Church (1994)
Explicitly
Centralizing
What factors contribute to climate?
• Stereotypes
 Simply activating an academic stereotype for a
minority group before a test produces a decrement in
performance!! (Steele and Aronson 1995)
• Tone
 Syllabus study–punishing vs. encouraging (Ishiyama and
Hartlaub 2002)
• Interactions
 Faculty-student and student-student
• Content
Back to the Case Study
Let’s collectively analyze the case study in light of the
information presented.
• How do the theories illuminate the story?
• What suggestions do you have for professor
Battaglia?
What we owe our students
Learning environments that
• Use the tools of the disciplines to engage and
embrace complexity
• Are explicitly inclusive in methods and content
7. To become self-directed learners,
students must learn to monitor and
adjust their approaches to learning
Case studies
1. Read the two stories on the handout
2. Pair up with the person next to you
3. Analyze what unproductive behaviors, attitudes,
circumstances etc are holding the students back
(don’t try to fix the problems yet)
4. Share with the large group
Metacognition: Definitions
“Metacognition refers to one’s knowledge concerning one’s
own cognitive processes or anything related to them,
e.g., the learning-relevant properties of information or
data. For example, I am engaging in metacognition if I
notice that I am having more trouble learning A than B; if
it strikes me that I should double check C before
accepting it as fact.”—J. H. Flavell (1976, p. 232).
“The process of reflecting and directing one’s own
thinking.”—National Research Council (2001, p.
78).
7. To become self-directed learners, students must learn to
monitor and adjust their approaches to learning
Evidence from research on
metacognition
Students don’t!
Students don’t!
(NRC 2001; Fu & Gray
2004)
(Carey & Flower 1989;
Hinsley et al. 1977)
Students
overestimate
their strengths
(Dunning 2007)
Self-explanation
effect
But students
don’t do it!
(Chi et al 1989)
Students don’t
plan, or do it poorly
(Chi et al. 1989; Carey et al.
1989)
Research on beliefs about learning
• Quick<------------------------------->
• Intelligence <------------------------>
as Entity
Gradual
Intelligence
Incremental
Beliefs about learning influence effort, persistence,
learning and performance (Schommer 1994,
Henderson & Dweck, 1990)
Metacognition can be taught
 Early research found it was EXTREMELY hard
 More recent research is a little more optimistic
In particular:
 Students can be taught to monitor their strategies,
with greater learning gains as a result (Bielaczyc et
al. 1995; Chi et al. 1994; Palinscar & Brown 1984)
 Students can be taught more productive beliefs
about learning and the brain (Aronson et al. 2002)
What we owe our students
Learning environments that foster
• metacognitive awareness
• a lifelong learning disposition
Teaching strategies
2 in particular:
• Guided self-assessment (Appendix A):
http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/teach/examwrappers/
• Exam Wrappers (Appendix F):
http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/teach/examwrappers/
Two über-strategies:
• Modeling Your Metacognitive Processes
• Scaffold Students’ Metacognitive Processes
Discussion/Q&A
• What stands out from the 7 principles?
• What implications do they raise for your teaching?
• What challenges do they present to you?
• How are they relevant in the face of emergent
technology, accountability concerns, and changing
demographics?
• …
MICHELE
Fly UP