Indirect Object Pronouns
Indirect Object Pronouns The Indirect Object • To identify the indirect object, you must answer these questions: -To whom? or For whom? the action of the verb is performed • The indirect object also tells us where the direct object is going. • Indirect objects are the recipients of direct objects Practice 1) Robert bought me lunch. --The indirect object is “me”. For whom did Robert buy lunch? For me. 2) I gave the basketball to John. --The indirect object is John. The direct object is going to John. 3) John gave the book to Michael. --The indirect object is Michael. To whom is the book going? To Michael. Indirect objects in Spanish • Like English, the Spanish indirect object is identified the same way. -Juan da el libro a Jorge. The indirect object for this is Jorge. The book is going to Jorge. -Julio compro un regalo para Marísol. The indirect object for this is Marísol. The book is going to Marísol. Indirect Objects and Their Pronouns • In English we can use pronouns to take place of the noun. The pronoun goes after the verb. - Sarah gave the book to him. “Him” takes place of the person receiving the book. • In Spanish we can use pronouns also to replace the indirect object. The pronouns go before the verb. - Miguel te da el libro. “Te” takes place of “you” which is the person receiving the book. In this sentence, if you ask the question “what,” you will find the Direct object, “el pastel.” If you ask the question “to whom,” you will find the Indirect object, “a Jaime.” You can also tell what the IO is going to be because it will have the word “a/para in front of the noun. “LE AND LES” The IO pronouns le and les present a special problem because they are ambiguous. That is, they can stand for different things. le to (for) him to (for) her to (for) you-formal les to (for) them to (for) you-all-formal “Le and Les The following sentences, while grammatically correct, are ambiguous: Ella le escribe una carta. Ella les escribe una carta. Out of context, there is no way we can know the meaning. Ella le escribe una carta. She writes him a letter. She writes her a letter. She writes you (formal) a letter. Ella les escribe una carta. She writes them a letter. She writes you-all (formal) a letter. “Le and Les” Since le and les can mean more than one thing, a prepositional phrase is often added to remove the ambiguity. Ella le escribe a Juan una carta. Ella le escribe a su hermana una carta. Ella le escribe a usted una carta. Ella les escribe a sus padres una carta. Ella les escribe a ustedes una carta. Sometimes a prepositional phrase is added not for clarity, but rather for emphasis. Juan me da a mí el dinero. John gives me the money. (emphasizing that the money is given to me and not to someone else) Juan te da a ti el dinero. John gives you the money. (emphasis on you) There is no ambiguity in the following sentence. It can only mean one thing. Juan me da el dinero. John gives me the money. The addition of a prepositional phrase merely adds emphasis. Juan me da a mí el dinero. John gives me the money. Indirect object chart SUBJECT PRONOUNS INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS (TO OR FOR) YO TU EL ELLA USTED NOSOTROS NOSOTRAS VOSOTROS VOSOTRAS ELLOS ELLAS USTEDES I YOU HE SHE YOU WE ME TE NOS ME YOU HIM HER YOU US YOU (PL.) FAMILIAR OS YOU (PL.) FAMILIAR LE THEY THEM LES YOU (PL.) FAMILIAR YOU (PL.)FAMILIAR Quiz 1. Mario saca el disquete para Luigi. -Change the sentence to fit the conjugated verb with its pronoun. -Replace Luigi with the indirect object _____. A. Nos B. Le C. Te • The correct answer is B. The sentence should read: Mario le saca el disquete. 2. Julio prende la máquina para Juan. - Change the sentence to fit the conjugated verb with its pronoun. -Replace Juan with the indirect object pronoun____ A. Les B. Te C. Le • The correct answer is C. The sentence should read: Julio le prende la máquina. 3. Alejandro compra chocolates para los estudiantes. -Change the sentence to fit the conjugated verb with its pronoun. -Replace los estudiantes with the indirect object pronoun____ : A. Nos B. Les C. Leo • The correct answer is B. Les The sentence should read: Alejandro les compra chocolates. 4. Peter me da el ratón. What is the indirect object pronoun in this sentence? Who is it replacing? • The indirect object is: me • “Me” is replacing me. 5. Tú cantas para nosotros. -Change the sentence to fit the conjugated verb with its pronoun. -Replace nosotros with the correct indirect object pronoun___ A. Nos B. Yo C. Les • The correct answer is A. The sentence should read: Tú nos cantas. Let's sum up the important points of this lesson: The IO tells us where the DO is going. The IO answers the question "to whom" or "for whom." Sentences that have an IO usually also have a DO Sometimes the DO is not stated, but rather is implied, or understood. The IO pronouns are: me, te, le, nos, os, les. Place the pronoun before the conjugated verb. Think in phrases, do not translate word-forword. Le and les are ambiguous. Prepositional phrases are often used for clarity and for emphasis.